J., and Coauthors, 2014: Upwash
exploitation and downwash avoidance by flap phasing in ibis formation flight.
The finite volume discretization approach is used to discretize the whole domain so that separation of wind flow, upwash
, and downwash mechanisms can happen similar to the experimental study.
formation on splash plate atomization," International Journal of Multiphase Flow, vol.
where [alpha] is the geometric angle of attack in an arbitrary spanwise section, [[delta].sub.1] and [[delta].sub.2] are the incidence angle of the fore wing and the hind wing, respectively, [[epsilon].sub.11]([[theta].sub.1]) and [[epsilon].sub.22]([[theta].sub.2]) are the induced angle of attack by its self-downwash effect, and [[epsilon].sub.12]([[theta].sub.1]) and [[epsilon].sub.21]([[theta].sub.2]) are the induced angle of attack by the upwash
and downwash effect between the fore wing and the hind wing, respectively; the induced angle of attack is positive for the downwash effect.
As the air squeezes around a bird's wingtips, it creates a current moving up -- called an upwash
It's commonly called downwash, but also involves the wing's upwash
and wingtip vortices.
Lissaman and Shollenberger (1970) applied aerodynamic theory to predict that 25 birds in a V could have a flight range increase of about 70% over a solo bird, with the posterior birds "riding" on the upwash
of tip vortices generated from the upstream members.
A rearward plane that keeps one of its wing tips in a vortex from the plane in front gets a boost from the upwash
of air and can save fuel.
Rod and turnbuckles appear to support The Amoeba's ceiling element and dramatic upwash
lighting is enhanced by the dark, open bar joist ceiling.
Installation of EMTEQ's full range of LED interior lighting and cabin accessories include Upwash
/ Downwash lighting, reading/table lights, air gaspers, and AC power outlets.