ABSTRACT | Investments in public infrastructure and land upzoning
aimed to high-rise redevelopment are both factors that considerably increase ground rent values in the city.
The study, by urban planning doctoral student Yonah Freemark, is entitled "Upzoning
Chicago: Impacts of a Zoning Reform on Property Values and Housing Construction."
"To have even more retail space, it's going to require more development and upzoning
"Rezoning and upzoning
, especially around commercial thoroughfares --where we have a loss of retail--there's definitely an opportunity to change what those commercial thoroughfares look like.
, which will require a lengthy approval process.
Residents subjected to incompatible upzoning
face the prospect of involuntary displacement and the functional and psychological trauma of dislocation and perhaps homelessness.
The reclassification being proposed for these properties is what people call "upzoning
This situation produces a perplexing asymmetry: if the government downzones property, it may have to pay for the regulatory burdens it imposes; but if it upzones property, it has no obvious mechanism for capturing the substantial benefits such upzoning
When considering an upzoning
, the city council could pass an ordinance that states that, if there are greater-than-expected spillovers, the local community board or city council member has the right to design a mitigation plan that the city council must vote up or down under a closed rule.
In addition, as part of the contextual zoning, two limited areas along Fourth and Seventh Avenues were rezoned to R7A, which provided a modest increase in allowable residential density (an upzoning
), but also removed the previous incentive to develop to even greater densities in buildings with community facilities.
When the dispute concerns a proposed upzoning
or other site-specific approval for a specific new project in which a specific developer has invested, then the developer with money in the parcel will fight neighborhood groups, sometimes winning and sometimes losing.
Boosters like Brooklyn Borough President Marty Markowitz, for example, had claimed that the city's upzoning
would transform the avenue into "a grand boulevard of the 21st century." One of the avenue's most prolific developers, Dominic Tonacchio, had referred to the boulevard in a Daily News article as "the next Park Avenue."