uracil


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uracil

(yo͝or`əsĭl), organic base of the pyrimidinepyrimidine
, type of organic base found in certain coenzymes and in the nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The three major pyrimidines of almost universal distribution in living systems are cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
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 family. It was isolated from herring sperm and also produced in a laboratory in 1900–1901. When combined with the sugar ribose in a glycosidic linkage, uracil forms a derivative called uridine (a nucleoside), which in turn can be phosphorylated with from one to three phosphoric acid groups, yielding respectively the three nucleotidesnucleotide
, organic substance that serves as a monomer in forming nucleic acids. Nucleotides consist of either a purine or a pyrimidine base, a ribose or deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. Adenosine triphosphate serves as the principle energy carrier for the cell's reactions.
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 UMP (uridine monophosphate), UDP (uridine diphosphate), and UTP (uridine triphosphate). The analogous nucleosides and nucleotides formed from uridine and deoxyribose occur only very rarely in living systems; such is not the case with the other pyrimidines. The nucleotide derivatives of uracil perform important functions in cellular metabolism, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism; UTP acts as a coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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 in the biosynthesis of sucrose in plants, lactose and glycogen in mammals, and chitin in insects. It can also readily donate one of its phosphate groups to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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 (ATP), an extremely important intermediate in the transfer of chemical energy in living cells. Since the uracil nucleotides contain only ribose and not deoxyribose, UTP is the source of uridine only in ribonucleic acid (RNA); there is no uridine in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Its involvement in the biosynthesis of RNA demonstrates that uracil is important in the translation of genetic information (see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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). A few laboratory derivatives of uracil have been designed as experimental antimetabolites (see metabolitemetabolite,
organic compound that is a starting material in, an intermediate in, or an end product of metabolism. Starting materials are substances, usually small and of simple structure, absorbed by the organism as food. These include the vitamins and essential amino acids.
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) for use in cancer chemotherapy.

Uracil

 

(also 2, 6-dioxypyrimidine), an organic substance and pyrimidine. Uracil occurs either as a white powder or as crystalline needles; it is soluble in hot water, has a molecular weight of 112, and is amphoteric and tautomeric:

Uracil was discovered in 1900, when it was detected in the products resulting from the breakdown of yeast nucleic acids. It is present in all living cells, forming part of many nucleotides and ribonucleic acids.

uracil

[′yu̇r·ə‚sil]
(biochemistry)
C4H4N2O2 A pyrimidine base important as a component of ribonucleic acid.
References in periodicals archive ?
High concentrations of thymine and uracil are present in DPD-deficient patients, whereas no pyrimidine degradation products can be detected.
Whereas there would be selective depletion of high C + G-rich amplicons that are more susceptible to deamination of cytosine to uracil on account of the higher cytosine content, this depletion is preferable to dealing with difficult-to-interpret sequence artifacts.
The data depicted in Table I show two experiments using different concentrations of the synthetic iron chelate of hypoxanthine and uracil.
Investigations of glutathione S-transferase (6), hemoglobin (7), uracil N-glycosylase (8), chorismate metabolism enzymes (9), and hypothetical protein targets associated with a structural genomics program (10) are representative of these efforts.
In the first possible role, pol [Iota] may play a role repairing uracil (U) in DNA.
Our pyrimidine, PSI-7977, an unpartnered uracil nucleotide analog, is initiating an interferon-free, Phase III program in patients with HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 and continues to be evaluated in five Phase IIb trials in patients with all HCV genotypes.
Editing is catalyzed by two classes of deaminases: those which convert adenosine to inosine (ADARs) and those which convert cytosine to uracil (APOBEC1).
RNA's nucleobases include adenine, cytosine and guanine (also found in DNA), plus uracil.
Known as base excision repair, it begins with the uracil-N-glycosylase enzyme, which acts to search through dsDNA for any uracil residues.
When the pancreatic cancer spread into surrounding body tissues, the researchers injected a harmless virus that carried, or "piggybacked," a compound called uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (UPRT) to the site of malignancy.
Uracil DNA glycosylase and 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate (dUTP)-spiked 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate (dNTP) were also used in the PCR reaction to destroy any previously amplified product as previously Described.