urban ecology


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urban ecology

the study of the city in terms of the social characteristics of areas or neighbourhoods, which originated in the University of Chicago in the 1920s. High rates of immigration into Chicago from Europe in the first two decades of the 20th century led to rapid urban growth and change, and stimulated research into the nature of urban living, the origins of social problems and the processes of urban growth and change through competition for space, changing land use and succession of functions. The early industrial city could be seen as being composed of three concentric zones or areas – the concentric zone hypothesis. These were the factory and business centre, the surrounding area of working-class residence, and then the areas occupied by the middle and professional classes. This is a reversal of the situation in the preindustrial city where the richer classes lived close to the central business district within the protective walls of the city, while the poorer people lived outside the city gates. However, as the industrial city grows into a metropolis, three developments occur:
  1. some productive enterprises move out of the centre into new industrial zones or trading estates where rents are lower and there are better networks of communication;
  2. the retailing and business zone grows and spreads into the neighbouring residential zone;
  3. the overall size of the city grows and creates suburbs and out-of-town shopping and amusement areas. See also URBANISM AS A WAY OF LIFE, URBAN SOCIOLOGY, ZONE OF TRANSITION, URBANIZATION, HUMAN ECOLOGY.
References in periodicals archive ?
She served as 2014-15 Baltimore Ecosystem Study Artist-in-Residence, producing a project based on long-term ecological research into urban ecology. Her recent work has been featured in exhibitions at BWI Marshall Airport, the New York Hall of Science, and Baltimore's Artscape festival.
IDEA Public Association has launched the "Urban Ecology" project aimed at preserving and returning the fauna species inherent in the urban environment and widespread in the past.
In her role, Murphy-Dunning partners with university faculty to lead field-based instruction on urban ecology for all incoming graduate students in the forestry and environmental studies program.
Activities to be held during this year's bazaar include various roadside forums, craftwork demonstrations, street performances, and even urban ecology tours.
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To reflect on urban ecology and planning, they used theory in the humanities, arts, and ecology, while exploring with their students new approaches to science, design, and public policy.
The crisis and subsequent rebuilding facilitated changes in San FranciscoAEs urban ecology, and, not surprisingly, poor people, people of color, recent immigrants, and women bore the brunt of the catastrophe.
As crows hunt young bird species, the number of birds decline since crows have a natural tendency to command the urban ecology. Instead of sending volunteers to count the species of birds, Nepal must use scientific measures to collect data on the number of indigenous birds and migratory birds.
Medini's development is driven by a desire to create a thriving urban ecology - a highly livable and economically sustainable, urban space integrated into the natural surroundings.
The discovery has implications for urban beekeepers and challenges assumptions that farmland and honey bees are incompatible, say authors of a study appearing in the Journal of Urban Ecology.
The curriculum combines knowledge of the interdisciplinary history of modern cities with the concepts of urban economics, city development and planning theory, urban ecology and demography, digitization, as well as applied research and problem-solving methods related to the city.

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