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(yo͝orē`tər), thick-walled tube that conveys urine from the kidneykidney, artificial,
mechanical device capable of assuming the functions ordinarily performed by the kidneys. In treating cases of kidney failure a tube is inserted into an artery in the patient's arm and blood is channeled through semipermeable tubes immersed in a bath
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 to the urinary bladder. It is approximately 10 in. (25.4 cm) long, with the upper half located in the abdomen and the lower half in the pelvic region. Urine is transported down this tube under the impetus of gravity assisted by contractions of the smooth muscles that line the ureteral walls. A blocked ureter can result from congenital abnormality, a tumor, or the formation of kidney stones. Blockage may require surgery to prevent loss of urinary function and eventual urea poisoning. See urinary systemurinary system,
group of organs of the body concerned with excretion of urine, that is, water and the waste products of metabolism. In humans, the kidneys are two small organs situated near the vertebral column at the small of the back, the left lying somewhat higher than the
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the efferent duct that serves to remove the urine from the kidney.

During the embryonic development of many vertebrates, the excretory function is fulfilled by three successive forms of kidney: the pronephros (also called the primordial kidney or the forekidney), the mesonephros (also called the middle kidney), and the metanephros—the definitive, permanent kidney. Correspondingly, three types of ureter arise: the pronephric duct, the mesonephric duct (also called Wolffian duct), and the metanephric duct—the definitive, permanent ureter.

The pronephric ducts continue to function past the embryonic stage only in cyclostomes, in which the ducts open into the urogenital sinus. In fish and amphibians, the Wolffian ducts continue to function as ureters throughout postembryonic life. In certain fish—dipnoans, chondrosteans, and holosteans—and in male amphibians, the ureters also function as the deferent ducts. The mesonephric ducts of fish open to the exterior of the body either directly through the urinary orifice (in all female teleosts and in the males of a few teleost species), through the urogenital sinus (in elasmobranchs, holocephalans, chondrosteans, holosteans, Polypterus, and most male teleosts), or through the cloaca (in chondrichthians and dipnoans). In most teleosts, the ureters empty into the urinary bladder. The metanephric ducts are the postembryonic ureters of reptiles, birds, mammals, and man; in all these, the sole function of the ureter is to conduct urine. In birds, monotremes, and most reptiles, the ureters empty into the cloaca, while in metatherians, viviparous mammals, certain reptiles, and man, they empty into the urinary bladder.

In man the two ureters are tubular organs through which urine flows from the kidneys into the urinary bladder. The ureters are situated on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity on both sides of the spinal column. On the average, each ureter is 30–35 cm long and 7–9 mm at its widest diameter. The ureters are internally lined with mucosa. Smooth muscles in the walls of the ureters ensure the flow of urine to the urinary bladder, regardless of the position the body is in.

Urethritis—inflammation of the ureteral mucosa—is the commonest disease of the ureters. Kidney stones can pass through the ureters, causing injury to the ureteral linings. Occasionally, one or both ureters can be congenitally bifurcated at the site of emergence from the kidney; complete doubling of one or both ureters is also possible. Other developmental anomalies include prolapse of the ureter into the vagina (in women) or into the seminal vesicles (in men).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A long tube conveying urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder or cloaca in vertebrates.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


the tube that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder or cloaca
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
For instance, major players such as Teleflex Incorporated offer a wide range of ureteral stents such as superglide ureteral stents, antireflux valve DD stents, special ureteral stents which include integral stents with one pigtail, and integral stents closed with tips on both sides among others.
--Renal graft: ischemia time, [greater than or equal to] 2 graft arteries, [greater than or equal to]2 graft veins, ureteral duplication, ureteral implant technique, ureteral stent use, surgical bleeding, surgical time, time to stent withdrawal, ureteral stenosis diagnostic method, time to ureteral stenosis development, treatment type (surgical, endoscopic, interventional).
Complications related to antegrade ureteral stent placement were defined according to the review published by Hausegger et al.
Unlike patients with ureteral endometriosis, those with bladder endometriosis are typically symptomatic and experience dysuria, hematuria, urinary frequency, and suprapubic tenderness.
Complications associated with ureteral herniation are uncommon, and many cases go unnoticed for years.
A prospective trial on ureteral stenting combined with secondary ureteroscopy after an initial failed procedure.
In this case report, the spontaneous urinoma appeared most likely due to right ureteral obstruction and perforation.
Diagnosis and management of ureteral fibroepithelialpolyps in children: A new treatment algorithm.
Unfortunately, ureteral jetting still may be noted despite partial ligation, laceration, or desiccation of the ureter.
Sometimes, it is stuck up in ureter especially distal ureter; hence called as lower ureteral stone (LUS) and causes intense flank pain beside urinary obstruction.
(2) Most ureteral stones can be treated in the outpatient setting with oral hydration, antiemetics, and pain control with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications as first-line treatment and opioids as a second-line option.