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(yo͝orē`tər), thick-walled tube that conveys urine from the kidneykidney, artificial,
mechanical device capable of assuming the functions ordinarily performed by the kidneys. In treating cases of kidney failure a tube is inserted into an artery in the patient's arm and blood is channeled through semipermeable tubes immersed in a bath
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 to the urinary bladder. It is approximately 10 in. (25.4 cm) long, with the upper half located in the abdomen and the lower half in the pelvic region. Urine is transported down this tube under the impetus of gravity assisted by contractions of the smooth muscles that line the ureteral walls. A blocked ureter can result from congenital abnormality, a tumor, or the formation of kidney stones. Blockage may require surgery to prevent loss of urinary function and eventual urea poisoning. See urinary systemurinary system,
group of organs of the body concerned with excretion of urine, that is, water and the waste products of metabolism. In humans, the kidneys are two small organs situated near the vertebral column at the small of the back, the left lying somewhat higher than the
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the efferent duct that serves to remove the urine from the kidney.

During the embryonic development of many vertebrates, the excretory function is fulfilled by three successive forms of kidney: the pronephros (also called the primordial kidney or the forekidney), the mesonephros (also called the middle kidney), and the metanephros—the definitive, permanent kidney. Correspondingly, three types of ureter arise: the pronephric duct, the mesonephric duct (also called Wolffian duct), and the metanephric duct—the definitive, permanent ureter.

The pronephric ducts continue to function past the embryonic stage only in cyclostomes, in which the ducts open into the urogenital sinus. In fish and amphibians, the Wolffian ducts continue to function as ureters throughout postembryonic life. In certain fish—dipnoans, chondrosteans, and holosteans—and in male amphibians, the ureters also function as the deferent ducts. The mesonephric ducts of fish open to the exterior of the body either directly through the urinary orifice (in all female teleosts and in the males of a few teleost species), through the urogenital sinus (in elasmobranchs, holocephalans, chondrosteans, holosteans, Polypterus, and most male teleosts), or through the cloaca (in chondrichthians and dipnoans). In most teleosts, the ureters empty into the urinary bladder. The metanephric ducts are the postembryonic ureters of reptiles, birds, mammals, and man; in all these, the sole function of the ureter is to conduct urine. In birds, monotremes, and most reptiles, the ureters empty into the cloaca, while in metatherians, viviparous mammals, certain reptiles, and man, they empty into the urinary bladder.

In man the two ureters are tubular organs through which urine flows from the kidneys into the urinary bladder. The ureters are situated on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity on both sides of the spinal column. On the average, each ureter is 30–35 cm long and 7–9 mm at its widest diameter. The ureters are internally lined with mucosa. Smooth muscles in the walls of the ureters ensure the flow of urine to the urinary bladder, regardless of the position the body is in.

Urethritis—inflammation of the ureteral mucosa—is the commonest disease of the ureters. Kidney stones can pass through the ureters, causing injury to the ureteral linings. Occasionally, one or both ureters can be congenitally bifurcated at the site of emergence from the kidney; complete doubling of one or both ureters is also possible. Other developmental anomalies include prolapse of the ureter into the vagina (in women) or into the seminal vesicles (in men).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A long tube conveying urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder or cloaca in vertebrates.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


the tube that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder or cloaca
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
To further localized, In this study we injected 3-5 cc of room air into the PCS (Pelvicalyceal system) system via a retrograde ureteric catheter with continuous fluoroscopy for 3-5 seconds, air was seen clearly emerging upward in the PCS, thus delineating the posterior calyx only as the anterior calyx was already filled with the contrast due to the effect of gravity, this led to a remarkable and a clear identification of the posterior calyx.
In our study the mean ambulation of the patients was 47.8 hours after open ureterolithotomy and 21.87 hours after rigid ureteroscopy for ureteric calculi as the patients in both the groups were operated under spinal anaesthesia.
For the management of ureteric injury, success rates for retrograde ureteral stenting have been reported to range from 14% to 84% (22-26).
During ureteroscopy using a pneumatic lithotripsy device to treat ureteric stones, instillation of hued lubrication jelly proximal to the stone prior to lithotripsy is effective in preventing stone retropulsion.
Medical expulsive therapy (MET) for ureteric stones has recently received a reappraisal among the medical and conservative options during the initial 6 weeks of presentation13.
Stent blockage (encrustations), difficult angle of the ureteric orifice, trabeculated bladder and patient difficulty (procedure poorly tolerated by patient, language barrier and full bladder) represented 30.2% of the reported difficulties, but in most cases (83.4%) these were successfully dealt with during the procedure.
A total of 235 patients (188 males and 47 females) with renal or ureteric stones who received ESWL treatment from January 2015 to December 2016 were analyzed.
Similar findings were reported earlier in which development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RAR ab2-mutant mice embryo; fewer branches of ureteric bud were present, and their ends were positioned abnormally at a distance from the renal capsule (Mendelsohn et al., 1999).
In our set up, patients presenting with ureteric pathology are likely to be referred to a urologist if they are male, a fistula surgeon if they are female, and a pediatric surgeon in the event of children.
Our case is the first of its kind where the patient presents with flank pain and hematuria which would be most commonly diagnosed as renal or ureteric colic.
Last but not least, the "theory of abnormal caudal rotation" proposes an explanation for renal ectopia, by stating that the lateral flexion and rotation of the caudal end of the embryo will thus alter the position of the blastema, relative to the ureteric bud, rendering them crossed.
Ultrasound of kidneys and urinary bladder showed Hutch diverticulum along left ureteric orifice.