urinalysis

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urinalysis

(yo͝or'ənăl`ĭsĭs), clinical examination of urineurine,
clear, amber-colored fluid formed by the kidneys that carries metabolic wastes out of the body (see urinary system). As the blood circulates it collects excretory products from the tissues and these substances are separated from the blood by the kidneys and eliminated
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 for the purpose of medical diagnosis. Urine is initially examined for such characteristics as color, odor, and specific gravity. It is routinely tested for acidity, as indicated by its pH reading, and screened for sugar, ketone bodies, proteins, and bile content. Benedict's solution, for example, may be used to test for simple sugars, a high level of which is a possible indicator of diabetes mellitus. Ketone bodies, e.g., acetone and acetoacetic acid, in the urine indicate the substitution of fats for sugar in the energy cycle and are another indication of diabetes mellitus. Abnormal levels of protein may be signs of kidney disease. A high concentration of bile in the urine is a sign of liver malfunction or blockage of the bile duct. Urine is examined microscopically to determine blood count. High levels of erythrocytes, or red blood cells, and leukocytes, or white blood cells, may be a result of bleeding and infection, respectively, in the urinary tract. Casts, crystals, and other substances, whose origins may be ascertained by determining their chemical structures, can be observed microscopically. Additional studies are performed when specific malfunctions are suspected. Clearance tests, for instance, will determine the ability of the kidneys to remove waste substances from the blood plasma per unit of time. The urine of patients with melanotic cancer will often contain melanin, a skin pigment. A diagnosis of drug addiction may be confirmed by the presence of specific chemical substances in the urine. Urinalysis is also employed to test for pregnancy. Pregnant women secrete high levels of gonadotrophic, or ovary-regulating, hormones from the placenta. A reagent containing gonadotrophic hormones is mixed with a sample of urine from the patient, and gonadotrophic antigens are added to it. Failure of the antigens to clump, or agglutinate, is positive evidence of pregnancy.

urinalysis

[‚yu̇r·ə′nal·ə·səs]
(pathology)
Analysis of the urine, involving chemical, physical, and microscopic tests.
References in periodicals archive ?
The case against screening urinalyses for asymptomatic bacteriuria in children.
You would have to screen almost 600 children to find 1 positive for hematuria on three urinalyses.
Urinalyses are often shipped cross country to a clinical or reference laboratory.
Nearly one-half of the positive urinalyses were false positives, which would have resulted in unnecessary treatment and hospitalization for at least 48 hours until ensuring a sterile urine culture, the investigators said.
On the third shift, the number of tests decreased from 91 to 23, or from 9.6 to 3.3 per cent of daily urinalyses. On the day shift, the number of urinalyses dropped from 581 to 474.
Records show that microscopics are done on 50 per cent of our urinalyses, so the TMU value of this segment is halved.