Amongst the compounds examined, the depside atranorin had shown substantial activity as an antiglycation agent along with divaricatic acid and usnic acid
. In an another study, ethyl haematommate, ethyl orsellinate, lecanoric acid, and gyrophoric acid had shown antiglycation activity .
With respect to cytotoxic/anticancer activities, the isolated compounds protocetraric acid and usnic acid
have demonstrated to significantly inhibit the growth of the melanoma UACC-62 and B16-F10 cell lines .
The mechanism of action of usnic acid
is not fully elucidated.
From a series of metabolites isolated from various lichen thalli, the following compounds showed a significant increase in neurite outgrowth in Neuro2A cells, compared to that in the vehicle (1% DMSO)-treated group (75.62 [+ or -] 5.75 [micro]m), upon treatment with 5 [micro]M: atranorin (131.73 [+ or -] 6.56 [micro]m), physodic acid (137.36 [+ or -] 6.67 [micro]m) and usnic acid
(129.32 [+ or -] 6.95 [micro]m).
granarius of extract and two secondary metabolites (diffractaic acid and usnic acid
) of a lichen species, Usnea longissima Arc.
In previous studies performed in our laboratory, H1299 lung cancer cells were exposed to 29 [micro]M usnic acid
for up to 48 hours (Mayer et al., 2005).
and Kivanc, M., 2004, The antimicrobial activity of extract of the lichen Cladonia foliaceaandits (-) Usnic acid
, atranorin and fumarprotocetraic acid constituents.
Haematomma nothofagi is easily confused with the New Zealand endemic species Haematomma hilare Zahlbr., but the latter contains methyplacodiolic and usnic acids
, and ascospores with 7-10 septa (Staiger & Kalb, 1995).
Included among the products that will almost surely face increased scrutiny are bitter orange, or citrus aurantium; usnic acid
; and aristolochic acid.
Three weeks into taking only half the recommended (dose, Rosenthal slipped into a coma, her liver apparently destroyed by usnic acid
, an ingredient in the supplement.
Deglaze includes an antibacterial cleanser containing balsam and usnic acid
; a camphor-, clove- and peppermint-containing toner; a clay based mask; Crude Control hydrating emulsion; Dissector drying lotion in regular or tinted formulas and Matt Velvet Dust, a powder for oily and problem skin.