Degeneration

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Related to vacuolar degeneration: vacuolation

degeneration

1. Biology the loss of specialization, function, or structure by organisms and their parts, as in the development of vestigial organs
2. Biology
a. impairment or loss of the function and structure of cells or tissues, as by disease or injury, often leading to death (necrosis) of the involved part
b. the resulting condition
3. Electronics negative feedback of a signal

Degeneration

 

(biology). (1) In morphology, the process of cell or organ destruction; for example, the disappearance of the tail in the tadpole when it is transformed into a frog.

(2) In microbiology, the attenuation of the viability of a culture of unicellular organisms under unfavorable growth conditions.

(3) The concepts of general and specific degeneration were introduced into the theory of evolution by A. N. Severtsov. By general degeneration, or morphophysiological regression, Severtsov meant one of the trends of the evolutionary process, characterized by a reduction of the organs with active functions (organs of locomotion, sense organs, the central nervous system) and the progressive development of organs that are passive but important for the animal’s survival (the sexual system and the passive means of defense, such as integuments and protective coloration). The development of tunicates, cirripeds, and tapeworms proceeded according to the principle of general degeneration. In specific degeneration, organs present in the ancestors are reduced in the process of an organism’s historical development: for example, the extremities in legless lizards and the shell in cephalopods. The cause of the reduction of organs is the absence of the conditions necessary for their development and functioning.

(4) In pathology, the term “degeneration” was introduced by R. Virchow, who admitted the possibility of the “degeneration” of cells. Present-day medicine has established that changes in cells depend on local or general metabolic disturbance, or dystrophy.


Degeneration

 

a change in the structure and/or function of cells and tissues as a result of certain diseases. The term “degeneration” was introduced into the language of general pathology by R. Virchow to designate processes in which the normal components of the cytoplasm are displaced and in which unnecessary or harmful deposits form in the intercellular matter. The deposits include protein-like substances, fatlike substances (in which case the deposition process is called lipoidosis), and calcium salts. In Soviet medical literature these pathological processes, which Virchow called degenerations, are conventionally termed dystrophies.

In some medical disciplines, “degeneration” has a specific meaning. For example, in neuropathology it usually refers to decomposition of the nerve fiber as a result of injury or death of the corresponding neuron.

degeneration

[di‚jen·ə′rā·shən]
(electronics)
The loss or gain in an amplifier through unintentional negative feedback.
(medicine)
Deterioration of cellular integrity with no sign of response to injury or disease.
General deterioration of a physical, mental, or moral state.
(statistical mechanics)
A phenomenon which occurs in gases at very low temperatures when the molecular heat drops to less than ³⁄₂ the gas constant.
References in periodicals archive ?
Moreover, most of the fetal myocardium of the diabetic group showed marked vacuolar degeneration of the cardiomyocytes, accompanied with marked vascular congestion, hemorrhage, subendocardial thickening, and vascular wall thickening.
b) STZ-induced DM group showing myocardial disarray, marked vacuolar degeneration of the cardiomyocytes (V), fragmentation of the nuclei of cardiomyocytes (arrow) and pyknotic changes of the nuclei (arrow head), congested blood vessels (C), and discontinuation of the vessel wall (dashed arrow) with the presence of subendocardial thickening (double arrow).
Marked vascular congestion accompanied with hemorrhage and multiple vacuolar degenerations were evident (Figure 1(d)).
Mild vacuolar degeneration of the distal tubules was seen in most of the animals.
In experimental group B few animals showed foci of cell injury and evidence of mild vacuolar degeneration.
There was no vacuolar degeneration in control group C.
Histological examination of the liver showed that the extract at 3000mg/kg produced vacuolar degeneration at the 91st day which however showed convincing signs of reversibility after 28-day posttreatment.
Histopathologically there is variable keratinocyte necrosis, vacuolar degeneration of basal cell and pigment incontinence, dermal edema, and peri-vascular lymphocytic infiltration.
Skin biopsy from right thigh revealed scattered dyskeratotic keratinocytes in the lower epidermis, vacuolar degeneration of basal layer, pigment incontinence and melanophages in superficial dermis, edema and sparse peri- vascular mononuclear infiltrate with occasional eosinophils in upper dermis and unremarkable subcutis (Figure 2).
Swelling and vacuolar degeneration were seen in the basal cells.

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