Vagus Nerve

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Vagus Nerve

 

in man, the tenth pair of cranial nerves, a paired mixed nerve containing motor, sensory, and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) fibers. The vagus nerve has three nuclei in the medulla oblongata in common with the glossopharyngeal nerve—the dorsal nucleus (autonomic); the ventral, or ambiguus, nucleus (motor); and the nucleus of the so-called tractus solitarius (sensory). The sensory fibers of the vagus nerve originate in two ganglia (superior and inferior) situated outside the cranium in the region of the jugular foramen. They then enter the cranial cavity and proceed to the medulla oblongata, from which they emerge with the vagus nerve through the jugular foramen. The vagus nerve is located in the neck with the carotid artery and jugular vein. It penetrates to the thorax, from which, together with the esophagus, it passes through the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity, forming plexuses on the walls of the esophagus, stomach, and so on. The motor fibers of the vagus nerve supply the muscles of the larynx, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and heart (inhibition of cardiac activity, regulation of blood pressure, and so forth). The sensory fibers of the vagus nerve supply the occipital portions of the dura mater, the neck organs, stomach, and lungs. The vagus nerve participates in many reflex acts (swallowing, coughing, vomiting, filling and emptying of the stomach) and in regulation of the heartbeat and breathing. It is also part of the solar plexus. Injury to the motor nuclei of the vagus nerve impairs swallowing, phona-tion, articulation, and respiration—that is, the so-called bulbar disturbances, which occur in bulbar paralysis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myeloencephalitis, and other diseases.

REFERENCES

Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po nevrologii, vol. 1, book 1. Edited by N. I. Grashchenkov. Moscow, 1959.
Clara, M. Das Nervensystem des Menschen, 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1953.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
With the knowledge gained by our study, we suggest that it is essential to improve the vagal tone both in PTs and HTs by yoga and meditation to prevent hypertension as well as to reduce the cardiovascular risk.
Vagal nerves were identified and medially retracted and then the dissection of distal portion of esophagus was performed (Figure 3).
To date, 12 studies have investigated the association between vagal nerve activity and prediction of prognosis in cancer with a total sample of 1822 patients.
Based on our review of the literature, we have concluded that SSS in our case was due to spiked parasympathetic predominance primarily due to increased vagal discharge.
Currently, the VM is likely the most commonly used vagal maneuver to treat stable PSVT.
Given the possible role of the vagus nerve in modulating cancer via inhibiting inflammation [21], we developed a simple numerical ratio indexing vagal neuroimmunomodulation (NIM) of inflammation.
Aim: To evaluate the value of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) in improving the quality of life, seizure frequency and mood in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy.
Comparing the 24-hour ABPM results for the two insular stroke patients (Table 1), we observed higher values of the arterial pressure in patient 2, associating higher heart rates, possibly related to a sympathetic hyperactivation, in contrast to a vagal tonus predominance in patient 1.
It is known that with advancing age there is the tendency to decrease the vagal response with a decrease in HRV (12), but this behavior does not seem to be the case among young athletes (18,29,31).
In concert, stimulation of pulmonary C-fibers by the inhaled aerosols may also be triggering a vagal effect (2).
Glucose-intolerant mice, exposed to a low-protein diet early in life and a control diet in adulthood, also show increased vagal activity, suggesting the participation of the parasympathetic nervous system upon glucose homeostasis [2].