valeric acid

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valeric acid

[və′lir·ik ′as·əd]
(organic chemistry)
CH3(CH2)3COOH A combustible, toxic, colorless liquid with a penetrating aroma; soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; boils at 185°C; used to make flavors, perfumes, lubricants, plasticizers, and pharmaceuticals. Also known as valerianic acid.
References in periodicals archive ?
SHAM 1 = sham-operated rats treated with vehicle as normal control 1; SHAM 2 = sham-operated rats treated with vehicle as normal control 2; OVX = ovariectomized rats treated with vehicle as negative control; PIR = ovariectomized rats treated with piracetam at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg BW as positive control 1; E2V = ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol valerate at the dose of dose 1 mg/kg BW as positive control 2; FU 50 and 200 = ovariectomized rats treated with F.
The observed VI values varied with substituent chain structure and increased in the following order: jojoba acetate < jojoba valerate < jojoba propionate < jojoba.
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Atorvastatin as an adjuvant with betamethasone valerate on disease severity and cardiovascular risks in chronic plaque type psoriatic patients.
Therefore, reported observation confirmed the creation of the cyst and stopping of follicular development after 60 days of treatment with estradiol valerate, due to lack of normal ovulation, cyst formation and normal follicular growth distribution (Figure 1).
Abbreviations E2V: Estradiol valerate ER: Estrogen receptor ER[alpha]: Estrogen receptor alpha ER[beta]: Estrogen receptor beta EtOH: Ethanol FBS: Fetal bovine serum HEPES: 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine ethane sulfonic acid CNH: Cameroon National Herbarium RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute SERM: Selective estrogen receptor modulators SEM: Standard error of mean SRB: Sulforhodamine-B OVX: Bilaterally ovariectomized rats.
After 2 weeks of sustained estradiol valerate administration, PGP 9.5-ir innervation in both the distal- and proximal-half areas was increased (by varying degrees) over that in the OVX rats (P < 0.001 for both areas; Figures 1 and 2(b), Table 2).
Estrogen treatment, in the form of 15–18 mg of estradiol valerate (Progynova; Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany) per day, was given orally starting on the 2[sup]nd day of each menstrual cycle.
Results: KN significantly improved the bone mass and microarchitecture in OVX rats, with little estrogen-like side effect compared with estradiol valerate. KN also exhibited stimulatory effect on osteoblastic cells and inhibitory action on osteoclastic cells, which down-regulated the phosphorylation level of I-[kappa]B.
In another study done by Mancuso G et al, [4] a RGS>3 was observed in 61% of the patients treated with Betamethasone valerate foam.
vestrant, adenosine, pulsed electrostatic field, and estradiol valerate are ineffective.
Anamnesis revealed mismating and estrogen injections (Oestradiol valerate) in two subsequent heats, after which female did not show heat for 1 year.
Synthetic steroids such as Estradiol Valerate suppress the serum levels of LH, FSH, and sex hormones and lead to a decrease in the number of the primordial follicles in rats.