valerian

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Valerian

(Publius Licinius Valerianus) (vəlēr`ēən), d. after 260, Roman emperor (253–60). He held important posts, both civil and military, under the emperors Decius and GallusGallus
(Caius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus) , d. 253 or 254, Roman emperor after 251. He fought in the eastern campaign that proved fatal to Decius. Gallus became emperor and accepted Hostilianus, Decius' son, as his colleague, or nominal coruler.
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. After the short reign of the former general Aemilianus, Valerian was proclaimed emperor. In 257 he organized a general persecution of the Christians. Although not an incapable man, he was nevertheless unsuited to rule in such a critical time, for N Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor were falling to the barbarians and to the Persians. Appointing his son, GallienusGallienus
(Publius Licinius Valerianus Egnatius) , d. 268, Roman emperor. He ruled as the colleague (253–60) of his father, Valerian, and alone (260–68). When his father was in the East, Gallienus checked the Alemanni near Milan, and even after the capture of
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, as coregent, Valerian undertook a campaign in the East against Shapur IShapur I
or Sapor I
, d.272, king of Persia (241–72), son and successor of Ardashir I, of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. He was an able warrior king.
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 of Persia, who destroyed the Roman army and took (260) the emperor prisoner. Valerian died in captivity and was succeeded by Gallienus.

valerian,

common name for some members of the Valerianaceae, a family chiefly of herbs and shrubs of temperate and colder regions of the Northern Hemisphere; a few species, however, are native to the Andes. The name valerian is popularly used for plants of the genus Valeriana and also for other related plants that are cultivated in flower gardens or borders for the numerous small and fragrant blossoms. The common valerian (V. officinalis) is sometimes grown under the name garden heliotrope, although it is unrelated to the true heliotropes. A perennial herb, it was used as a condiment during the Middle Ages and later as the source of a perfume oil (from the scented roots and rhizomes). It is still cultivated in parts of N Europe and in some Asian countries for the essential oil, sometimes substituted for that of the related spikenardspikenard
, name for several plants. The biblical spikenard, or nard, was a costly aromatic ointment, preserved in alabaster boxes, whose chief ingredient is believed to have been derived from Nardostachys grandiflora (or N.
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, and for the dried roots and rhizomes, also called valerian and used medicinally as a sedative and carminative. The active ingredients are valopotriates. In the N United States the common valerian is found naturalized in the North, and several species grow indigenously elsewhere, e.g., V. ciliata on the prairies and V. uliginosa in eastern swamps and moist woodlands. The red valerian, or Jupiter's-beard (Centranthus ruber), and the African valerian (Fedia cornucopiae) are among other ornamental species native to the Old World. The valerian family is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Dipsacales.
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valerian

valerian

Tiny whitish pink flowers clustered into bunches. Famous tranquilizer that calms nerves, spasms, sleeping problems, anxiety, fatigue, ulcers, headaches, pain, irritability, depression, circulation, blood pressure, IBS (irritable bowel), menstrual, muscle cramps, . Protects liver. Cats like it almost as much as catnip.

valerian

a sedative drug made from the dried roots of V. officinalis

valerian

any of various Eurasian valerianaceous plants of the genus Valeriana, esp V. officinalis, having small white or pinkish flowers and a medicinal root

Valerian

Latin name Publius Licinius Valerianus. died 260 ad, Roman emperor (253--260): renewed persecution of the Christians; defeated by the Persians
References in periodicals archive ?
1980) showed a valerian tincture (DAB 7) to slightly reduce locomotor activity in mice after gavage of 1000 mg/kg bw and, after a storage period of 9 month, also of 100 mg/kg bw.
Although in some studies an extended anesthetic-induced sleeping time after administration of valerian preparations or isolated constituents like hesperidin was demonstrated (Hiller and Zetler, 1996; Leuschner, et al.
To summarize, considering all results obtained in clinical trials and in in vivo pharmacological experiments there is hardly evidence of sedative activity of common valerian preparations.
1995) we carried out behavioral experiments in mice and rats to test valerian for anxiolytic and antidepressant activity that may account for its proved sleep-enhancing properties in humans.
Using the elevated plus maze test the ethanolic extract VAL TE 35E and the special extract phytofin Valerian 368 that was derived from it, as well as the commercially available methanolic extract VAL H 45M displayed a pronounced anxiolytic activity.
Anxiolytic-like effects of valerian or of isolated constituents have previously been observed by Hiller and Kato (1996) and Marder et al.
1996) was observed, we tested VAL TE 35E and phytofin Valerian 368 for putative antidepressant activity.
In contrast to its primary extract VAL TE 35E, phytofin Valerian 368 reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test after subacute treatment.
None of the tested extracts (VAL TE 35E and phytofin Valerian 368) showed myorelaxant activity in dosages up to 1000 mg/kg bw.
Our investigations are partially contradictory to the common view on the pharmacological activity of valerian preparations.
Instead, the special extract phytofin Valerian 368, its 35% v/v ethanolic primary extract VAL SE 35E and the commercially available 45% methanolic (m/m) preparation were proved to exhibit a pronounced anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze paradigm following acute administration.
Moreover, results obtained in the horizontal wire test after gavage of the 35% ethanolic extract and its derived special extract phytofin Valerian 368 justify the exclusion of myorelaxant properties of these preparations.