valine


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Related to valine: isoleucine, histidine, serine

valine

(văl`ēn), organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. It is one of several essential amino acids needed in the diet, as the human body cannot synthesize it from simpler metabolites. Young adults need about 23 mg of this amino acid per day per kilogram (10 mg per lb) of body weight. Valine can be degraded into simpler compounds by the enzymes of the body; an inherited defect in one of the enzymes involved in this process results in a rare disorder called maple syrup urine disease. Valine contributes to the structure of proteins into which it has been incorporated by the tendency of its side chain to participate in hydrophobic interactions. The structure of valine was established in 1906, after it had been first isolated from albumin in 1879. See isoleucineisoleucine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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Valine

 

α-aminoisovaleric acid, (CH3)2,CHCH(NH2)— COOH, one of the irreplaceable amino acids. Valine is included in proteins in the form of the L-isomer. The amount of valine in protein usually varies from 4.1 percent (horse myoglobin) to 7-8 percent (human serum albumen, milk casein) and sometimes 13-14 percent (connective-tissue elastin). The absence of valine from food makes it protein-deficient and results in a negative nitrogen balance.

valine

[′va‚lēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H11NO2 An amino acid considered essential for normal growth of animals, and biosynthesized from pyruvic acid.
References in periodicals archive ?
MC/FC Compounds RT(min) VIP FC p Amino acid Valine 7.68 1.57 Leucine 8.48 1.63 Fatty acid Linoleic acid 27.65 1.62 Oleic acid 27.73 1.84 0.46 0.005 Organic aid 3-Hydroxybutyric acid 6.88 2.14 0.45 0.004 Citric acid 19.91 1.78 0.37 <0.001 Other metabolites Phosphate 8.65 1.61 MS-d10/FS-d10 MR-d7/FR-d7 FC p FC p Amino acid 2.80 <0.001 2.80 <0.001 2.80 <0.001 2.80 <0.001 Fatty acid 2.35 0.002 2.29 0.003 2.11 0.007 Organic aid 2.80 <0.001 2.80 <0.001 2.80 <0.001 2.64 <0.001 Other metabolites 2.80 <0.001 2.80 <0.001 RT: The retention time of each compound from GC-MS; VIP: Variable importance in the project; FC: Fold change.
Disturbed AA metabolism has long been considered a feature of obesity and associated metabolic disease; obese people have higher blood levels of the BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and AAA (phenylalanine and tyrosine) but lower levels of glycine than lean people [18].
After hospital discharge, the feeding regimens were continued with branched chain-free amino acid supplement and expressed breast milk with supplementation of isoleucine 100 mg/day and valine 50 mg/day to prevent the deficiency, which yielded total energy of 130 kcal/kg/day, total protein of 3 g/kg/day, leucine, isoleucine, and valine of 50 mg/kg/day each.
In addition, patient received continuous nasogastric infusion of BCAA-free formula as well as isoleucine and valine supplements to promote leucine incorporation into newly synthesized proteins.
The electropherogram shows a thymine to adenine transversion at nucleotide position 1799 of the complementary DNA (red arrow), resulting in glutamic acid for valine substitution at amino acid position 600.
The depressant effect of excess intake of isoleucine may be caused by the antagonism between this and another two branched chain amino acids, such as valine and leucine.
Most valuable are the following essential amino acids: valine, lysine, tryptophane, etc [3].
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These abnormalities are thought to be due to erratic delivery of levodopa to the brain, which may result from the fact that large neutral amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, and tryptophan) compete with levodopa for intestinal absorption and for transport across the blood-brain barrier.
19 May 2015 - US-based insurance broker and consultant NFP has acquired Vermont, US-based brokerage and consulting firm Hackett Valine and MacDonald, Inc., the company said on Tuesday.
Gnarly's BCAA formula includes Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine - the three most important amino acids for protein synthesis and the building of muscle.