The concept of fitness, I will argue, is the fundamental valuational
concept--for humans and all other creatures--and it implies that valuation is relational and subjective, yet still objective in important ways.
So, for example, Plato recognizes the valuational
affinities of individuals in his search for a community that would be characterized by order, stability, and the satisfaction that attends virtue.
In most circumstances where the potential liability is ordinary, a corporate defendant has a lower exposure to litigation risk than an individual plaintiff and thus enjoys a systemic risk arbitrage opportunity resulting from repeated valuational
concessions at settlement by plaintiffs under a set of recurring conditions.
"It could well be valuational
momentum that is driving these moves rather than anything else."
God and world (and entities within the world) are distinguished according to a valuational
The relationship between descriptive and valuational
quality of life measures in patients with intermittent claudication.
Sen also discusses how this approach avoids other problems involved in utilitarian approaches such as "valuational
distortions resulting from the neglect of substantive deprivation of those who are chronically disadvantaged but who learn, by force of circumstances, to take pleasure in small mercies and get reconciled to cutting down their desires to 'realistic proportions' ..." (19) This last remark seems to be particularly important to a discussion of human rights and immigration as it is people forced under different circumstances to migrate from their homes that could be identified as "chronically disadvantaged" both in their homeland and in the new lands to which they move.
To assess the impact of globalization and the specific attitudinal and valuational
shifts among urban Indian youth, we focused on two distinct yet related target groups: first, a select number of young college students from diverse socio-economic backgrounds, most of whom were women; and second, a select group of college faculty and administrators of both genders working closely with these students.
Hodgkinson also appreciates that leadership cannot be "routinized" or "computerized" and that it is intrinsically situational and valuational
, something which he describes as "philosophy in action" (1983:202).
The immanent ones divide into hyletic objects and intentional acts; the transcendent objects fall into physical and psychophysical, also cultural objects, also ideal objects." (10) Mohanty writes that, for Husserl, the natural-scientific attitude is an abstraction from valuational
and practical predicates.
is compelled to work his way in order to reach an authentic valuational
attitude" (Bakhtin 1990: 6).