value judgement

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value judgement

an ethical or moral evaluation, especially where this leads to a statement of what, on ethical or moral grounds, ‘ought to be done’. In Logical Positivism (see POSITIVISM) the assumption is sometimes made that no ‘value judgement’ can ever be derived from a purely 'scientific’ statement (see FACT-VALUE DISTINCTION). However, two other possibilities exist:
  1. that ‘facts’ and ‘theories’, although they can never dictate our ‘values’, can inform us about causal connections, etc., thus also indicating how we might go about achieving our ethical goals (this approximately was WEBER's view; see also HYPOTHETICAL IMPERATIVE);
  2. that the notion of an insurmountable divorce between ‘facts’ and ‘values’ is false, and that whenever possible we should always seek to ground our ethical and moral positions and our value judgements on firm sociological foundations (the position, for example, of COMTE or DURKHEIM, or the FRANKFURT SCHOOL OF CRITICAL THEORY).

All three positions continue to be held by different sociologists in modern sociology. See also CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE, KANT, BECKER, HIERARCHY OF CREDIBILITY.

References in periodicals archive ?
ECHR jurisprudence shows that issue of value judgments whose authenticity cannot be proven, such as expressing ideas about a person's character, It should not be followed by a penalty, for this would be a violation of free speech, aspect emphasized in the case Grinberg v.
Max Weber had, according to Ropke, provided a useful critique of those who engaged in an "indiscriminate use of value judgments.
A possible answer can be found in the relation between value judgments and emotions, which is investigated by cognitivist approaches to emotions.
All three authors recognize the importance of ethics and value judgments for policymaking, how economists and other social scientists often make implicit value judgments without making their underlying ethical systems explicit, and the importance of economics for explaining and understanding how a free society grounded in property rights contributes to human flourishing.
Political studies, like other social sciences, but unlike pure sciences are normative in character and therefore make normative prepositions, and normative prepositions state value judgments.
Substantive communication between physician and patient is obviously key to satisfying individual patient value judgments in medicine.
Despite their anti-market instincts, Oliver and Campos do an important public service by dissecting what Campos correctly identifies as another in a long line of "moral panics," revealing the value judgments, aesthetic reactions, prejudices, and emotions beneath the veneer of objective science.
It is improbable, if not impossible, for participants to completely lay aside the value judgments that creep into the process of reaching understanding and agreement (Habermas, 1990).
Straightforward reportage on the dwindling of the cheetah and the tracking of the panther through Central and South America informs readers of basic facts minus value judgments.
It has long been a dogma in some quarters that value judgments are radically different from factual judgments, that they are "subjective" or "untestable" in a way that factual judgments are not.
However monumental-looking, Pop avoids the divisive value judgments of populism, Remember how Andy made portraits of both Marilyn and Mao?
We never rendered value judgments on what the woman should do," Michelman says of her early days with Planned Parenthood.