values


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values

  1. ethical ideals and beliefs. The term is often used to distinguish scientific knowledge from ‘values’, especially where such ‘ethical’ ideals, ‘oughts’, etc. are held not to be, or as inherently incapable of ever being, 'scientific’. See also FACT-VALUE DISTINCTION, POSITIVISM, VALUE FREEDOM AND VALUE NEUTRALITY.
  2. the central beliefs and purposes of an individual or society. In Talcott PARSONS’ structural-functionalism internalized 'shared values’ are regarded as playing a decisive role in the social integration of any society (see also CONSENSUS). Criticism of this view is that it overstates the extent to which social integration depends on shared values and understates the importance of political or economic POWER (see also OVERSOCIALIZED CONCEPTION OF MAN; CONFLICT THEORY).
Most sociologists recognize that societies can exist even though riven by value divisions, and that an adherence to prevailing beliefs and values is often expedient or pragmatic rather than deeply held (e.g. see DEFERENCE). Equally, however, most sociologists also acknowledge that naked economic or political force is rarely the sole basis of social integration (e.g. is an unstable basis of political power) and that values usually play an important role (see POLITICAL LEGITIMACY).

In a similar way to criticisms of functionalism, Marxist theories which posit a dominant role for IDEOLOGIES in the maintenance of social power are also criticized for overemphasizing the role of internalized beliefs and values (see DOMINANT IDEOLOGY THESIS).

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
References in periodicals archive ?
In evaluation of the learning styles preferences for the 78 students in the General Chemistry courses using Shetlar-Morrison's instrument, average values of auditory = 26.4%, visual = 40.1% and tactile/kinesthetic = 33.5% were obtained as illustrated in Figure 3.
The purchasing company must assign a value to all of the tangible and intangible assets purchased and record these asset values on its balance sheet.
Every year camps and camp professionals strive to bring a diverse community together around common values and goals.
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In a branch of philosophy known as axiology (the theory of values), there is a distinction that may help explain the reasons behind the public's interest in health care and medicine -- and the relationship to people's values and fears.
2.1, the total interval consisting of the union of intervals [[x.sub.i] [+ or -] 2u([x.sub.i])], for i = 1, 2,..., n, represents an approximate range of the plausible values of Y.
Most carriers have access to sufficient buyer information to develop a clear understanding of the needs and values sought by various customer segments.
The positive spiritual values of respect, love, and peace inherent in all faith traditions may serve as the foundation for counseling sessions with troubled youth.
FASB's fair value measurement standard is a good first step toward developing enhanced guidance for the estimation of fair values.
The latter does not call for adjustment of values based on IRS audit results or court decisions, but simply defines a gift via formula (e.g., the gift is expressed as $x of the value of an interest to one beneficiary, with the remainder of the value to a charity).
Secondly, she says there will be complexities in identifying the source data for the Level 3 unobservable inputs then used to determine fair value. Policies and procedures will also need to be developed identifying and documenting the fair values that use unobservable inputs, she explains.