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(chemical engineering)
The removal of small amounts (usually less than 0.2%) of fine particulate solids from liquids (such as drinking water) by methods such as gravity sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, filtration, and magnetic separation.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The removal of small amounts of fine, particulate solids from liquids. The purpose is almost invariably to improve the quality of the liquid, and the removed solids often are discarded. The particles removed by a clarifier may be as large as 100 micrometers or as small as 2 micrometers. Clarification is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, beverages, and fiber and film polymers; in the reconditioning of electroplating solutions; in the recovery of dry-cleaning solvent; and for the purification of drinking water and waste water. The filters in the feed line and lubricating oil system of an internal combustion engine are clarifiers.

The methods of clarification include gravity sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, filtration, and magnetic separation. Clarification differs from other applications of these mechanical separation techniques by the low solid content of the suspension to be clarified (usually less than 0.2%) and the substantial completion of the particle removal. See Filtration, Magnetic separation methods, Mechanical separation techniques, Sedimentation (industry)

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Research findings of the values clarification approach are also highly consistent: they show no significant changes in the dependent variables (Leming 1981, 1985, 1987).
A teacher's guide put out by the National Education Association favors values clarification over character inculcation.
Through values clarification, participants are able to:
In a "values clarification exercise," the woman answers questions about various aspects of testing scenarios to elicit their value to her, ranging from "absolutely critical" to "not at all important." Based on the woman's responses, the program suggests testing strategies that might fit her values and risks, and it gives summaries of strategies she chooses.
Of additional interest is the training-of-trainers course which included values clarification and making trainers comfortable and confident in discussing sex and sexuality, the development of the curriculum and the selection of topics based on perceived needs of adolescents, and the responses of teachers and young people.
This method of teaching has often been called "values clarification" and it stresses the idea there are no right or wrong answers, only as Carolyn mentions, "answers which are compatible with our own life experiences." Such a concept, however, denies the reality of personal sin.
Through several sessions devoted to values clarification work and career fantasy exercises, Dan learned he could use his expertise and skills in other ways.
This report provides a summary of the topics discussed during the workshops, including the Adoption and Safe Families Act; values clarification; judicial decisions; family drug courts; and successful approaches/best practices.
Two schools of philosophical thought dominated the period: the moral development approach of Kohlberg, and the values clarification process of Raths, Simon, Harmin, and Kirschenbaum.[4,6,7] Values clarification was the more popular approach and received widespread support in schools.
The course curriculum is designed to provide special skills in handling conflict, with emphasis on developing and improving skills in listening, problem solving, values clarification, and mediation, plus emphasis on anger control, forgiveness and non-violence.
These are the issues that led me to create Trading Heroes, a "values clarification course" that draws on the power of the hero phenomenon and the creative drive of students.