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Reverse circulation of blood in the heart due to defective functioning of the valves.
Bringing back into the mouth undigested food from the stomach.


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Many of the early materialization mediums were accused of fraud, with the explanation that the ectoplasm that they produced was, in fact, physical material that they had swallowed and then regurgitated. This theory was first propounded in 1922 by the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in the case of Eva C.. The medium Eva Carriere was visiting London and being investigated by the SPR. Professor Charles Richet said, “They [the SPR] admit that the only possible trickery is regurgitation. But what is meant by that? How can masses of mobile substance, organized as hands, faces, and drawings, be made to emerge from the oesophagus or the stomach? … How, when the medium’s hands are tied and held, could papers be unfolded, put away and made to pass through a veil?"

At a séance on November 26, 1913, conducted by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing, a strong emetic was given to Eva to answer the charge that the ectoplasm was actually regurgitated material. It satisfied the researchers that she had swallowed nothing. A number of experiments took place at Dr. Gustav Geley’s laboratories in 1917 and 1918. Nearly 150 scientists and others witnessed the sittings.

To state that the medium had “obviously regurgitated material” became a typical dismissal of a medium’s performance by a researcher either too lazy to fully investigate or too skeptical to accept what was being proven before his eyes. However, there certainly were fraudulent mediums who did swallow cheesecloth and similar material and attempt to regurgitate it to create an ectoplasmic effect. One such was Helen Duncan, who was examined by the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Following this, the Morning Post of July 14, 1931, carried an article claiming that Duncan had been caught out and exposed as a fraud. Researcher Harry Price called her “one of the cleverest frauds in the history of Spiritualism.” It transpired that the “ectoplasm” was in fact a composition of wood pulp and egg white, which she was able to swallow and then regurgitate. On July 17, the Light carried a followup article also branding her as a fraud and carrying a confession from her husband.


Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. London: Arthurs Press, 1933
The International Survivalist Society:
Psychic News, #3754, June 19, 2004. Stansted, Essex
Leonard, Sue (ed): Quest For the Unknown—Life Beyond Death. Pleasantville: Reader’s Digest, 1992
References in periodicals archive ?
Although the clinical importance of asymptomatic valvular regurgitation in exposed patients and the risk for developing bacterial endocarditis in these patients are unknown, practitioners should strongly consider performing echocardiography on all persons--regardless of whether they have cardiopulmonary signs or symptoms--who have been exposed to fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine for any period of time, either alone or in combination with other agents, BEFORE the patient undergoes any invasive procedure for which antimicrobial endocarditis prophylaxis is recommended by 1997 AHA guidelines.
0 mmol/L or taking relevant drugs), abnormal renal function (serum creatinine ≥110 [micro]mol/L), abnormal electrocardiography (Q wave, arrhythmia, or bundle block), valvular stenosis (any degree), more than mild valvular regurgitation, wall motion abnormalities and pericardial effusion on echocardiographic recordings, Assessment Test Score of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease >20, forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio from pulmonary function test <0.
A short paragraph was included about the two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography in evaluation of carditis, however the conclusion was that "at present there is insufficient information to allow the use of echocardiography, including Doppler, to document valvular regurgitation without accompanying auscultatory findings as the sole criterion for valvulitis in Acute Rheumatic fever".
Other less common causes of clinical heart failure with a normal EF need to be differentiated echocardiographically: acute valvular regurgitation, restrictive pericarditis, and circulatory congestive states such as can be created by renal failure.
The greater the lifetime use of pergolide, the worse a patient's composite echocardiographic valvular regurgitation score, he continued.
This enhancement to Philips' unique Live 3D Echo technology will aid physicians to diagnose the severity of valvular regurgitation, congenital malformations such as septal defects and other abnormal flow patterns in the heart.
2) Positive echocardiogram--Oscillating intracardiac mass on valve or supporting structures or in the path of regurgitant jets or in implanted material, in the absence of an alternative anatomic explanation, or abscess, or new partial dehiscence of prosthetic valve, or new valvular regurgitation (increase or change in preexisting murmur not sufficient).
Clinician can use this new technology to more rapidly assess the effects of treatment on cardiac function, for example, after-load reduction, or as a means to quantify valvular regurgitation.
The severity of valvular regurgitation was determined on a qualitative scale according to the American Society of Echocardiography guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: mild (grade 1), moderate (grade 2) and severe (grade 3-4) (29).
In an asymptomatic patient with severe valvular regurgitation, what cardiologists really want to know before deciding whether to call in the surgeon is how the myocardium is coping with the altered flow.
Doppler echocardiographic evidence of trivial-to-mild valvular regurgitation is commonly observed in a normal population.