Arai, "Evaluation of van der Waals forces
between the carbon nanotube tip and gold surface under an electron microscope," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part N: Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanosystems, vol.
The [N.sub.2] pressure should be sufficiently high so as to overcome these resistive forces caused by the surface tensions and van der Waals forces
between the melted tin ball and the welding tip.
These intermolecular forces are known as van der Waals forces
. Again, the macroscopic manifestation of van der Waals forces
appears as a disjoining pressure term in the governing equations.
Van der Waals forces
are typically seen when two very flat surfaces come in to contact with each other.
Over a decade ago, a pair of studies asserted that geckos owe their stickiness to van der Waals forces
(SN: 7/15/00, p.
In particular, the double-walled nanotubes can be viewed as two concentrically nested seamless grapheme cylinders bonded together by van der Waals forces
6) Dynamic pull-in instability of electrostatically actuated beams incorporating Casimir and van der Waals forces
Water derives many of its signature features from a combination of properties at the molecular level such as high polarisability, directional hydrogen bonding sites and van der Waals forces
, the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules not related to covalent or ionic bonds.
The secondary force is again subdivided into Keesom force, Debye force, and London dispersion force, which is much larger than the other two Van der Waals forces
. Surface tension is surface free energy per unit area, thermodynamically.
She adds that the animals grip surfaces with microscopic hairs on the soles of their feet that make close enough contact to be attracted to the surface by the minute van der Waals forces
As an undergraduate at the University of California, Berkeley, she started a research project examining climbing gecko lizards, and ultimately discovered that geckos stick to surfaces using van der Waals forces
. She then continued her studies at Harvard University, earning her Ph.D.