Different from a traditional multi-pass condenser which starts from the top and ends at the bottom, the separation condenser is designed to have vapor-liquid separation
in the vertical second header.
While maldistribution exists as a problem, it provides a possibility for creating vapor-liquid separation. Meanwhile, two-phase distribution can also be improved by first separating the liquid and vapor then sending them to separated passes, since single-phase flow after separation has more uniform properties than a two-phase flow.
The theoretical rationale behind the advantages of a condenser with vapor-liquid separation is following.
This paper experimentally investigates refrigerant R134a vapor-liquid separation in vertical impacting T-junctions and parametric effects on liquid separation performance.
The vertical branch diameter of a T-junction also affects the vapor-liquid separation performance.