hemorrhage

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hemorrhage

(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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Hemorrhage

 

escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.

A. B. GALITSKII

hemorrhage

[′hem·rij]
(medicine)
The escape of blood from the vascular system.

haemorrhage

(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
In head to head comparision wih empirical beta-blocker treatment alone, endoscopy alongwith beta blocker and endoscopic variceal band ligation approaches costed nearby $175,000 additionally per variceal hemorrhage that could be prevented.
The patient in this study was referred to the emergency department because of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. The patient initially had tachycardia, but he developed bradycardia after octreotide infusion and a complete heart block was diagnosed.
We evaluated the possible predictive factors for early mortality and rebleeding in patients with variceal hemorrhage, by dividing the batch of 647 patients into 2 categories as follows:
Bosch, "Management of varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
Prediction of the first variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis of the liver and esophageal varices.
Prior variceal hemorrhage or variceal band ligation has not been present [2, 4, 5, 10, 11].
Factors predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with cirrhosis hospitalized with gastro-esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Indian J Gastroenterol 2006;25:240-3.
Endoscopic variceal ligation is an alternative to NSBBs for the primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage in patients with medium to large varices.
Treatment of esophageal variceal hemorrhage with self-expanding metal stents as a rescue maneuver in a Swiss multicentric cohort.