Several retrospective studies have shownthat SAAG and serum albumin as probable noninvasive biochemical markers of esophageal varices
in cirrhotic patients and SAAG has been concluded an indirect biochemical marker in detecting the occurrence and grades of esophageal varices
as a n endoscopic parameter of portal hypertension.
A non-parametric statistical analysis was applied to the data, such as esophageal varices
and platelet count, which were the clinical and laboratory findings of portal hypertension, the histopathological findings, and the demographic data.
Data on safety and efficacy of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in managing bleeding gastric varices
in children is scarce.15 Our main objective was to observe the safety and effectiveness of N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate injection in bleeding gastric varices
in pediatric population and also observe its outcomes which include achievement of hemostasis, re-bleeding and complications.
Gastrointestinal endoscopic examination performed 3 months after surgery showed regression of the esophageal and fundal varices
(Figure 3a, 3b).
Then, absorbable gelatin sponge particles (Cali-Gel, Alicon) were injected through the distally placed microcatheter until the entire efferent vein, varices
, and afferent vein was visualized (Fig.
Other thresholds associated with failure to control bleeding varices
(20 mmHg), mortality from acute alcoholic hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis (22 mmHg), or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (30 mmHg) have been identified in decompensated cirrhosis [15-18].
During endoscopy, gastroesophageal varices
(Sarin's GOV-2) with large gastric component (at the cardia and fundus) toward the greater curvature were visualized (Figure 1).
However, not all patients with cirrhosis have PHE; but there are several risk factors that increase the likelihood of PHE: CTP B and C, portosystemic shunts, ascites, portal thrombosis, esophageal varices
, and portal hypertensive gastropathy [6, 9].
The most common endoscopic finding was esophageal varices
, observed in more than 90% of patients.
An upper endoscopy performed in June 2017 demonstrated portal hypertensive gastropathy but no esophageal varices
Ranjan, "Vaginal varices
with massive hemorrhage in a patient with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and portal hypertension: successful treatment with liver transplantation," Liver Transplantation, vol.
Patients were categorized as cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic types, with a further subclassification of the non-cirrhotic type into acute and chronic PVT, depending on the image of cavernoma transformation (formation of collateral blood vessels) or evidence of PH including splenomegaly and esophageal varices
, as features of chronic PVT.