varnish


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varnish,

homogeneous solution of gum or of natural or synthetic resins in oil (oil varnish) or in a volatile solvent (spirit varnish), which dries on exposure to air, forming a thin, hard, usually glossy film. It is used for the protection or decoration of surfaces and may be transparent, translucent, or tinted. For oil varnishes a hard gum or resin, often a fossilized plant exudation such as kauri or copal, is dissolved in oil (commonly linseed oil or tung oil) and is diluted with a volatile solvent such as turpentine. Spirit varnishes are commonly made of soft resins or gums, such as shellacshellac,
solution of lac in alcohol or acetone. In commerce the name is applied to the resinous substance (lac) itself rather than to the solution. It ranges in color from orange to light yellow depending upon the extent to which it has been purified; the darker shellacs are the
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, dammer, mastic, or sandarac, dissolved in a volatile solvent, e.g., alcohol, benzene, acetone, or turpentine. Enamel is varnish with added pigments. Lacquer may be a cellulose derivative dissolved in a volatile solvent, or it may be a natural varnish made in the East from the sap of trees. Among the varnishes named either for their constituents or for the proposed use are japanner's gold size, cabinet, carriage, bookbinder's, patent-leather, insulating, photographic, shellac, and copal picture varnish. Varnish has been known from antiquity; the Egyptians coated mummy cases with a pastelike form made of soft resins dissolved in oil and applied when warm. Another early use was for coating oil paintings. Stradivarius and other violinmakers used a slow-drying linseed oil varnish on their instruments.

Bibliography

See Oil & Colour Chemists' Assoc., Paint Technology Manual (2 vol., 1961, 1962); C. R. Martens, Technology of Paints, Varnishes, and Lacquers (1968).

Varnish

A resin dissolved in oil or spirit, which dries to a brilliant, thin, protective film.

varnish

[′vär·nish]
(materials)
A transparent surface coating which is applied as a liquid and then changes to a hard solid; all varnishes are solutions of resinous materials in a solvent.

varnish

A clear, unpigmented preparation consisting of resinous matter dissolved in alcohol (spirit varnish) or other volatile liquid, or in oil (oil varnish); when applied as a thin coating on a surface, it dries leaving a hard, smooth, transparent, glossy protective film.

varnish

1. a preparation consisting of a solvent, a drying oil, and usually resin, rubber, bitumen, etc., for application to a surface where it polymerizes to yield a hard glossy, usually transparent, coating
2. a similar preparation consisting of a substance, such as shellac or cellulose ester, dissolved in a volatile solvent, such as alcohol. It hardens to a film on evaporation of the solvent
3. the sap of certain trees used to produce such a coating
References in periodicals archive ?
Dr Richard Freeman supported Jess Varnish's claim that British cyclists were tightly controlled by their coaches
Varnish was dropped by British Cycling in April 2016.
Repeated layer of varnish is applied till the thickness of varnish is upto 1mm (A).
L* value of all the samples has decreased when compared to the samples with no varnish. This situation is more obvious especially in the samples with heat treatment and the samples have darkened more.
In the present study, all the fluoride varnish groups had lower mean surface roughness values than the positive control group.
The higher mineral density and mechanical properties of varnish treated enamel can be attributed to the greater formation of calcium fluoride adsorbed on the surface of enamel and the role of fluoride in the inhibition of mineral loss in enamel.
A British Cycling statement on Friday read: "Following an internal investigation, the British Cycling board has upheld an allegation made by Jess Varnish that former technical director Shane Sutton had used inappropriate and discriminatory language.
Fluoride varnish is a concentrated topical fluoride that sets on contact with saliva and helps prevent caries by enhancing remineralization and inhibiting bacterial enzymes.
Varnish is best applied in infants and toddlers in a knee-to-knee format [provider to parent] with the child facing the parent and holding the parent's hands, and the provider tipping the child into his or her lap.
"The keirin can be quite a lottery so I just wanted to go out and execute a good ride," Varnish said.
Then it seems the wax or varnish or both changed; the varnish went to a urethane synthetic, and when my last can of old wax was gone and I bought new, I had to wax every two or three days, where I used to use them more and only needed to wax every week or so.
The origin of this alteration is a hitherto unknown degradation process at the interface between paint and varnish, which studies at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF in Grenoble (France) and at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY in Hamburg (Germany) have revealed for the first time.