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(dĭmĕn`shə) [Lat.,=being out of the mind], progressive deterioration of intellectual faculties resulting in apathy, confusion, and stupor. In the 17th cent. the term was synonymous with insanityinsanity,
mental disorder of such severity as to render its victim incapable of managing his affairs or of conforming to social standards. Today, the term insanity is used chiefly in criminal law, to denote mental aberrations or defects that may relieve a person from the legal
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, and the term dementia praecox was used in the 19th cent. to describe the condition now known as schizophreniaschizophrenia
, group of severe mental disorders characterized by reality distortions resulting in unusual thought patterns and behaviors. Because there is often little or no logical relationship between the thoughts and feelings of a person with schizophrenia, the disorder has
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. In recent years, the term has generally been used to describe various conditions of mental deterioration occurring in middle to later life. Dementia, in its contemporary usage, is an irreversible condition, and is not applied to states of mental deterioration that may be overcome, such as delirium. The condition is generally caused by deterioration of brain tissue, though it can occassionally be traced to deterioration of the circulatory system. Major characteristics include short- and long-term memory loss, impaired judgement, slovenly appearance, and poor hygiene. Dementia disrupts personal relationships and the ability to function occupationally. Senility (senile dementia) in old age is the most commonly recognized form of dementia, usually occurring after the age of 65. Alzheimer's disease can begin at a younger age, and deterioration of the brain tissue tends to happen much more quickly. Frontotemporal dementia, resulting from the atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, is the most common form of dementia, however, in persons under the age of 60. It was formerly known as Pick's disease; that term is now reserved for a specific subtype of frontotemporal dementia. Individuals who have experienced cerebrovascular disease (particularly strokes) may develop similar brain tissue deterioration, with symptoms similar to various forms of dementia. Other diseases that cause dementia include Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Some forms of familial Alzheimer's disease are caused by specific dominant gene mutations.


See L. L. Heston and J. White, The Vanishing Mind (1991).



irreversible deterioration of mental activity, manifested mainly by a decreased ability to acquire knowledge, loss of previously acquired knowledge, emotional apathy, and behavioral changes.

Dementia may be congenital (oligophrenia) or acquired. The concept of dementia usually refers to acquired dementia, that is, dementia resulting from mental disease. Clinically, dementia may be total or partial. Total dementia is characterized by an impairment of the ability to make judgments and arrive at conclusions, a sharply decreased critical attitude toward one’s condition, a loss of individual personality features, and a predominance of a complacent attitude (as in the case of senile psychosis). The main symptom of partial (dysmnestic) dementia is a disturbance of memory accompanied by emotional instability, helplessness, and a weakening of mental activity (as in the case of vascular disease of the brain). In partial dementia, however, consciousness of one’s own incompetence is retained, and the personality does not lose its individuality to the degree that it does with total dementia. The irreversibility of dementia is to some extent conditional, as is demonstrated by the results of treatment for patients with Bayle’s disease. In addition, there is a special form of acute transitory dementia associated with certain febrile, toxic, and other psychoses. The characteristics of dementia depend on the disease that produces the mental deterioriation; among the diseases are epilepsy, schizophrenia, and alcoholism.



Deterioration of intellectual and other mental processes due to organic brain disease.


a state of serious emotional and mental deterioration, of organic or functional origin
References in periodicals archive ?
Reading ability appears to be maintained in the early stages of AD and vascular dementia, while semantic processing of the words seems to be affected; this means that patients have the ability to read written material but are shown to have slower eye movements while doing so, which may be due to patients not understanding what words mean; hence it may take AD and vascular dementia patients longer to read than other people of their age.
Alzheimer's and vascular dementia are diseases that begin years before symptoms ever start.
Prevalence estimates of Vascular Dementia in developing countries range from 0.
Vascular dementia is caused by reduced blood supply to the brain due to diseased or damaged blood vessels, and according to the analysis, this is exactly what happened to Clinton when she suffered serious concussion four years ago.
Issues like hypertension can cause damage to the blood vessels, leading to vascular dementia.
Mild cognitive impairment is a clinical term used to describe the presence of cognitive abnormality greater than expected in relation to a person's age and level of education and can represent an increased risk factor for Alzheimer's and vascular dementia.
Lobar microbleeds were associated with a doubling in the risk of Alzheimer's disease, while deep bleeds increased the risk of vascular dementia sixfold.
Yuliang Wang and team from Weifang Medical University observed the effects of EGb761 on proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of rats with vascular dementia.
Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia in the United States and Europe, but the most common form in Asia.
When vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease were analyzed separately, subjects with midlife depressive symptoms only did not have a significantly increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (HR, 1.
Other neurodegenerative conditions causing true dementia include vascular dementia (VaD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Pick's disease (frontotemporal dementia, FTD), Huntington's disease (HD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), cortical basal ganglionic degeneration, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
My mother had vascular dementia, so I know from personal experience the devastating impact this condition has on everyone touched by it - and how important it is to know that support is out there when you need it.