Neuropathy

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neuropathy

[nu̇′räp·ə·thē]
(medicine)
Any disease affecting neurons.

Neuropathy

 

a functional weakness of the nervous system accompanied by a decrease in the absolute threshold (also called the stimulus, or sensitivity, threshold); the condition is frequently congenital.

Neuropathy arises as a disturbance in the function of the autonomic nervous system owing to deleterious influences on the fetus as a whole (for example, infection in the pregnant mother, trauma, or poisoning) or on the individual embryonic cells (as occurs when the parents suffer from alcoholism). Family circumstances, upbringing, and illnesses suffered by the infant play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropathy. The symptoms usually emerge in childhood or adolescence. When neuropathy occurs in early childhood, disturbances of sleep and appetite are most characteristic; the infant has difficulty in falling asleep, awakes easily, suckles poorly, and frequently spits up. Later, vomiting occurs, and either diarrhea or constipation develop.

From the preschool years on, increased general excitability and the rapid onset of fatigue and exhaustion are observed, in addition to continued disturbances of sleep and appetite. Children who suffer from neuropathy blush easily in response to irritation. Motor hyperactivity, nervous tics, and stammering are frequent. In adolescence, autonomic-vascular instability becomes more acute, as evidenced by frequently occurring nervous palpitation, abrupt shifts in blood pressure, headaches, dizzy spells, and fainting spells. The prognosis is favorable, with the neuropathic symptoms usually disappearing with age.

REFERENCES

Simson, T. Nevropatii, psikhopatii i reaktivnye sostoianiia mladencheskogo vozrasta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1929.
Sukhareva, G. E. Klinicheskie lektsii po psikhiatrii detskogo vozrasta, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.

L. M. SHMAONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
(7) As our patient had acute vasculitic neuropathy and early renal involvement as evidenced by proteinuria with new onset hypertension, he was treated with glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide.
Contributions cover acute neuropathies, chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and its variants, nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy, dysimmune neuropathy, autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, myasthenia gravis with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibody-positive and seronegative myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, and stiff person syndrome.
With respect to immune-mediated neuropathies, consider primarily autoimmune conditions (eg, Guillain-Barre syndrome, vasculitic neuropathy) and also paraneoplastic autoimmune syndromes (eg, subacute sensory neuropathy).
We used nerve biopsy specimens of patients with axonal neuropathy (AN), systemic and nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy (NSVN) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) (as a control group).