Deliberately spreading disease through arthropods is the vector effect of biological warfare.

Today, largely thought of as a throwback of the early days of biological warfare, the possibilities of the vector effect have emerged again after conjecture of the potential introduction of West Nile Virus to North America.

Developing biological weapons for the vector effect was one of those areas.

The casualty potential of the vector effect results from calculations with finite sets.

The persistence is the length of time that the vector effect will continue to inflict casualties before replenishment is required to maintain a barrier.

The vector effect offers biological warfare with extended options not available with the more traditional aerosol weaponry--diversifying the arsenal with additional agents and employment methods, circumventing respiratory protective means, and offering persistence to deny the utility of terrain and facilities.

The vector effect allows biological warfare to transcend through the operational phase and into tactical situations.

On the other hand, (1a) permits the inclusion of the polarization vector effects, but resultant operator does not satisfy hermiticity [7, 8].

In the following, we show how to deal with polarization vector effects in the resultant eigenvalue problem when calculating modal parameters in optical waveguides.

The additional term [[??].sub.t] includes any inhomogeneity associated to the spatial distribution of the permittivity and polarization vector effects. Linear anisotropies are included through the term [DELTA][[??].sup.(1)], and the nonlinearities are taken into account according to the electric field dependence [1].