Three steps required for the use of the vector voltmeter are the six-port junction calibration, the insertion device calibration and the measurement, based on the superposition principle.
A schematic diagram of the vector voltmeter is shown in Figure 4.
A conventional microwave network analyzer uses a test set with a directional coupler and power splitters to send samples of the incident and reflected signals to a vector voltmeter
. The vector voltmeter
downconverts the signals twice, using local oscillators and mixers, to a low IF where the complex ratio of the two signals is found with synchronous detectors.
Features include cable and antenna test (distance to fault, return loss, and VSWR); a vector voltmeter
(one-and two-channel); power meter measurements up to 24 GHz with a USB power sensor; USB, LAN, and micro SD connectivity; and a wide-angle and bright display for use in direct sunlight.