Using those values the velocity profile
can be calculated as shown in Figure 3.
The velocity profile
is used to obtain shear rate distribution, while the pressure drop is used to calculate the shear stress distribution.
11 Velocity profile
predictions of the FAC Bessel model
In this research work, an attempt is made to test the efficacy of the numerical scheme by comparing the results obtained using a pulsatile velocity profile
for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian models considering the flow to be laminar.
In the past few decades, great efforts about the structure of excitation systems and electrodes have been made to reduce the effects of the velocity profile
. Horner B improved the measurement accuracy of flow measurement by increasing the number of electrodes [4, 5].
The authors in  among others pointed out that the travel time of mobile robot navigation depends on the path shape and the velocity profile
, in which the admissible velocity is affected by the curvature.
Despite the different inlet velocity profile
shapes (uniform, fully developed) used in the calculations, the velocity fluctuations do not increase.
At [PHI] = 90[degrees], the velocity profile
in Figure 8 is affected by the presence of these vortices.
The basic logarithm law of mean velocity profile
of turbulent shear flow is
In this section, the new profile is analyzed and compared to the trapezoidal velocity profile
It should be noted that each vehicle will have its own response time (depending on the powertrain configurations), and in this paper, since we are considering only homogenous vehicles, the response time of the individual vehicles is the same and the total convoy response time is governed by the lead vehicle velocity profile
The transient velocity profiles
for different values of Magnetic parameter M at Gr = -8 & 8, a = 0.6, k = 0.5, R = 2, t = 0.6, and [gamma] = 0.4 are shown in Figure 3.