One of the biggest advantages of gear is that it offers constant velocity ratio
, hence it is being used on the large scale in various industries.
Connolly's elastic impedance equation assumes using S-P wave velocity ratio
K as a constant for the whole data set, which is an unrealistic approach.
A closed-form expression is developed to estimate nuclear-air-blast-induced free-field ground displacement that takes into account peak overpressure, positive phase impulse, depth of layer interface, representative constrained modulus of each layer, strain recovery, stress attenuation, P-wave velocity, and velocity ratio
. The solution is validated against a nuclear test conducted at Frenchman Flat (Nevada) and the following conclusions are arrived at:
Figure 5 shows the relationship between the average velocity ratio
of fluid Vn (which considers solid-liquid interaction) and V 0 (not considering the solid-liquid interaction) in different capillary radiuses and solid-liquid index n.
The umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and thoracic aorta of the foetus were studied with five indices namely peak systolic velocity (S), end diastolic velocity (D), peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity ratio
(S/D ratio), Resistive Index (RI) and Pulsatility Index (PI).
where the velocity ratio
is defined as [LAMBDA] = ([U.sub.[infinity]] - [U.sub.- [infinity]])/([U.sub.[infinity]] + [U.sub.-[infinity]]) and the temperature ratio is defined as [S.sub.T] = [T.sub.[infinity]]/[T.sub.-[infinity]].
Equal velocity curves, representing the ratio of the Scholte wave velocity to the longitudinal velocity of the liquid ([c.sub.Scholte]/[c.sub.liquid]), have been obtained with respect to the density ratio ([[rho].sub.solid]/[p.sub.liquid]) and longitudinal velocity ratio
([c.sub.L, solid]/[c.sub.L, liquid]) of liquid to the solid wave-guide; similar nondimensional Scholte wave velocity curves were presented in literature previously for the nondispersive Scholte waves .
The impact of geometry and flow configuration (velocity ratio
, turbulence, inclination angle, temperature, etc.) on jet trajectory, scalar mixing, the morphology of structures, and other flow phenomena on the JICF have been investigated in previous research [4-28].
To measure the comprehensive influence of the contraction channel on the velocity of the bubble, we defined the average velocity ratio
as, in the same case, the average velocity of a bubble that moves from the initial position to a position that is completely through the channel; the contraction channel has a constant cross-sectional area.
We have also observed that some attributes such as P wave, S wave acoustic impedances and P to S waves velocity ratio
(VPNs) have different variation response, when gas hydrates occurred as part of host So it is expected that these results Leeds us to interpret gas hydrates accurately in Makran offshore Pakistan.
The figures show a solid line as a baseline case, with each shade representing a fixed volume flow rate and velocity ratio