Cho BC, Choi HJ, Kang SM, Chang J, Lee SM, Yang DG, Hong YK, Lee DH, Lee YW, Kim SK (2004) Congenital absence of inferior vena cava
as a rare cause of pulmonary thromboembolism.
El mas medial entre los cinco fue de gran tamano (3 mm de diametro) y continuo como una vena testicular y se abrio hacia el margen derecho de la vena cava
inferior, 1 cm por encima de la union de las venas iliacas comunes.
Left superior vena cava
persistence in patients undergoing pacemaker or cardioverter-defibrillator implantation: a 10-year experience Chest 2001;120:139-44.
Isolated Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava
: A Case Report and its Clinical Implications.
It is the most common cardiac malignancy during middle age of life, which occurs more frequently in males than in females. It usually develops in the right heart, and most of them are in the right atrium and superior vena cava
Persistent left superior vena cava
(PLSVC) is the most common thoracic venous anomaly, with a prevalence of 0.3%-0.5% in the general population (1).
After placement of a Greenfield[TM] vena cava
filter in 2003, a pulmonary endarterectomy was performed.
Downhill varices develop as a consequence of a pressure increase or an obstruction of the vena cava
superior in the upper third of the esophagus and are a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
Venous leiomyosarcomas commonly arise from the inferior vena cava
, pulmonary vein, femoral vein, great saphenous vein, and jugular vein .
However, in many patients anticoagulation is contraindicated during periods of high PE risk, and inferior vena cava
(IVC) filters are recommended for these situations [3, 7-9].