Although there are many small studies in literature comparing central venous pressure
monitoring between internal jugular and femoral site, yet most of them demonstrate the fact that central venous monitoring from either site is reliable7-10.
The most widely used parameter to assess intravascular volume is central venous pressure
Episcleral venous pressure
in younger and older subjects in the sitting and supine positions.
Association between elevated central venous pressure
and outcomes in critically ill patients.
Central venous pressure
(CVP) line was inserted in the left internal jugular vein.
Swan Ganz parameters POD 0 POD 1 POD 13 POD 20 CVP 13 8 11 14 (mm Hg) PASP 139 110 114 89 (mm Hg) PADP 85 60 59 41 (mm Hg) mPAP 103 79 77 60 (mm Hg) CO -- 4.9 7.1 6.4 (l/min) CI -- 3.2 4.5 4.1 (l/m/m2) CVP = central venous pressure
, PASP = pulmonary artery systolic pressure, PADP = pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, mPAP = mean pulmonary artery pressure, CO = cardiac output, CI = cardiac index, SVR = systemic venous resistance, and Sv[O.sub.2] = systemic venous oxygen saturation.
One of the cases had liver disease with resultant portal hypertension and three had known histories of total radical hysterectomy suggesting lack of uterine vascular network leading to increased venous pressure
in the vaginal venous plexus.
Three trials of unassisted circulation were made and at the third attempt, with oesophageal and rectal temperatures of 35-5[degrees]C and 32-4[degrees]C respectively, and a venous pressure
of 7 cm.H=0, bypass was terminated with an arterial pressure of 95/70 mm.Hg.
While a trend in raised retinal venous pressure
appears to be developing, the exact mechanisms for this are unclear.
Central venous pressure
(CVP) monitoring and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) have been traditionally used to estimate the circulating blood volume, but studies have shown that these monitors cannot reliably estimate preload (1) or predict responsiveness to fluid therapy (2-4).
Experimental studies have revealed that retrograde air emboli can occur in venous vasculature in the setting of certain circumstances, such as putting the patient in a supine position or at least at an angle of 45 [degrees]C to the horizontal plane, venous valve insufficiency, and increased venous pressure
in the right cavities of the heart (7,8).
The blood pressure was 50/30 mmHg, central venous pressure
was 3 cmH2O at her admission.