The current study explored the effect of a classroom-based strings-based instrumental music training program on visual and verbal learning
and memory in primary school age students over a three year period.
Compared with placebo, significant improvements were seen in the ALC group in various measures of mental and neuromuscular function, including Mini Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Auditory Verbal Learning
"Epidemiological studies have found that children with prenatal PCB exposure do more poorly on tests of verbal learning
and memory," says Susan Schantz, a professor of veterinary biosciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign College of Veterinary Medicine.
Although all three teachers expressed a strong preference for receiving information through the verbal learning
modality, they taught largely through the visual mode and employed the verbal mode mainly for discussions, with very little teacher exposition.
One involved learning how to select and serially insert parts into a computer motherboard, which emphasizes visual-spatial memory skills; another involved sorting written material alphabetically and categorically, which makes a strong demand on verbal working memory; and the third involved learning the basic procedures of word processing using a personal computer, which taps verbal learning
ability (Kern et al., 2002; Zarate, Liberman, Mintz, & Massel, 1998).
Chapter 11 identifies 10 strategies for dealing with undermotivated boys: 1) checking in with boys every day, 2) getting boys involved, 3) sitting them near the front of the room, 4) providing more hands-on and fewer verbal learning
opportunities, 5) allowing students to move around while doing academic activities, 6) providing soft objects for them to squeeze for brain stimulation, 7) changing class or school schedules to make them more brain-compatible, 8) providing opportunities for physical activities, 9) providing smaller classrooms and schools, where possible, and 10) having a mentor for each undermotivated student.
Although this view is consistent with evidence in the verbal learning
tradition (Underwood, 1966) and, more recently, in predictive learning with humans (Pineno & Matute, 2000), little research has been conducted to ascertain whether the occurrence of this effect critically depends on the target and interfering associations sharing an identical outcome.
Research presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry in March found that elderly patients with depression treated with Lilly's Cymbalta[R] (duloxetine hydrochloride), 60 mg once daily, had twice as much improvement in verbal learning
and recalling information than those given a sugar pill.
Researchers at Edinburgh University say the test - which measures IQ, memory, motor skills and verbal learning
- can reveal who is likely to develop the illness up to three years in advance.
Ausubel (1963), in his theory of meaningful verbal learning
, advocated the use of advance organizers to facilitate the learning of written material.
"These deficits on memory and verbal learning
," Schantz says, "are consistent with what had been seen in children [prenatally] exposed to PCBs."
Other researchers have reported recently that moderate iron deficiency also compromises memory and verbal learning