Morphometric study of the atlas vertebra
using manual method.
Plain x-ray of the lumbar-sacral spine AP view showing the presence of an enlarged transverse process of the L5 vertebra
forms a joint with the sacrum or the ilium.
This angle is obtained by the intersection of two lines perpendicular to the tangents of the upper plateau of the upper terminal vertebra
and the lower plateau of the lower terminal vertebra
of the curve presented by the vertebral column.
Developmentally, FT is formed by fusion vestigial costal element and true transverse process of the cervical vertebra
. The vertebral vessels and nerve plexuses are caught between these two bony elements.
Compression of the vertebral artery (primarily during extensive rotation of the head and neck) and consequential vertebrobasilar ischemia with symptoms such as headache, vertigo, photophobia, dizziness, head and neck pain, gives significant clinical importance to morphometric analysis of the posterior arch of the atlas vertebra
The L2 vertebra
had a centrum of normal size and shape, but its superior articular facets were more elongated superiorly-inferiorly than those of the L3 vertebra
"If a predator grabbed hold of one of these reptiles, the vertebra
would break at the crack and the tail would drop off, allowing the captorhinid to escape relatively unharmed," said Robert Reisz , a professor of biology at University of Toronto and co-author of the new study said.
On a per-level basis, our analysis showed a statistically significant difference between DXA and QCT measurements of L1, L2, and L3 vertebra
. QCT method found, as previously shown, more cases with abnormal bone mineral density values compared to DXA (Table 3).
The number of thoracolumbar vertebrae is associated with body length and carcass traits, and represents an important economical trait in livestock, because one extra vertebra
expands the carcass length (CL) up to 80 mm in pig .
It involves removing the section of the vertebra
that covers the spinal canal to make more room for the nerves.
Although the incidence of male dogs was higher in this study, the statistical evaluation did not confirm any predisposed gender, and we found no statistically significant predisposition for any particular abnormal vertebra