They are caused when vertical vorticity
fields along the gust front wrap up and stretch quickly.
A mesocyclone usually possesses a diameter between 2 and 10 km and a vertical vorticity on the order of 0.
Figure 7 presents two orthogonal vertical cross sections of reflectivity, vertical velocity, and vertical vorticity through the mesocyclone center.
To examine the intensification mechanism of the mesocyclone in this miniature supercell, the vertical vorticity budget from the 3D dual-Doppler winds is calculated using the method described in Eastin et al.
Paul Markowski (Penn State University) and Yvette Richardson, "Large sensitivity of near-surface vertical vorticity
development to heat sink location in idealized simulations of supercell-like storms," in a forthcoming issue of the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences.
2014) simulated a tornadic supercell using ARPS in which the tilting of frictionally generated horizontal vorticity was cited as an important source of near-ground vertical vorticity.
The flow field along the FFDB possesses substantial vertical vorticity (broad regions with values from 0.
The conditions associated with tornadoes have been extensively studied and include contributions from an environment conducive to deep moist convection and a source of easily stretched low-level vertical vorticity
(Doswell et al.
The primary (tangential) and secondary (radial) circulations of Usagi deduced from the Ground-Based Velocity Track Display (GBVTD) methodology clearly portrayed three distinct axisymmetric maxima of radar reflectivity, tangential wind, vertical velocity, and vertical vorticity.
first demonstrated the contraction of the outer eyewall and intensification of Saomai using the axisymmetric radar reflectivity, tangential winds, vertical vorticity, and pressure deficit derived from the ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD; Lee et al.
Figure 6 indicates that the horizontal flow relative to the translating MV is filled with positive vertical vorticity peaking at about 12 x [10.
2006) within this relatively stable low-level environment that exhibited high values of vertical vorticity.