The vestibulum increases in volume in the series studied.
(2007) for diprotodontians is the caudal view of the posterior arc of the LSC just before the 'contact' with the vestibulum, which exhibits a curvature in the case of the arboreal species.
Hyrtl (1845) investigated the number of openings at the vestibulum that lead to the semicircular canals.
The depressed area forms a cuplike protuberance on the dorsal labiate plate that projects ventrad into the vestibulum. In other Orthotylini, the gland inserts into a flat, nondepressed area.
I propose the following putative synapomorphies for Carvalhomiris: large genital capsule with cephalic, lateral margin strongly emarginate; strong brachypterism in both sexes; fight paramere clubbed, with apical margin serrate; vesica with a single, large, C-shaped spicule, with its base nearly reaching the cephalic end of the aedeagus; lateral infoldings of the sclerotized tings on the dorsal labiate plate with a posteriad acute process; and dorsal labiate plate with a cuplike depression projecting into the vestibulum.
Drawings of the female genitalia, including a dorsal view of the bursa copulatrix and associated structures, as well as a frontal view of the vestibulum, are provided for two species of Roburocoris and Viscacoris.
Females distinguished from those of Hamatophylus guttulosus (Reuter, 1876) by the smaller size and more slender body shape as well as characters of the female genitalia, such as the straight and membranous vestibulum (Fig.
10): Dorsal labiate plate of bursa copulatrix broad and rather short, sclerotized rings small or medium-sized, set far apart from each other, vestibulum membranous, posterior margin of fold within bursa copulatrix weakly sclerotized, valvifers 1 weakly sclerotized, posterior wall membranous with roughly symmetrical, paired, elongate oval sclerites.
10): with bursa copulatrix short and broad, sclerotized rings large, rounded, and set far apart from each other, vestibulum sclerotized, elongate, and almost straight, valvifers 1 well-developed, posterior wall membranous with roughly symmetrical paired elongate sclerites.