villein


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villein

(vĭl`ən) [O.Fr.,=village dweller], peasant under the manorial systemmanorial system
or seignorial system
, economic and social system of medieval Europe under which peasants' land tenure and production were regulated, and local justice and taxation were administered.
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 of medieval Western Europe. The term applies especially to serfsserf,
under feudalism, peasant laborer who can be generally characterized as hereditarily attached to the manor in a state of semibondage, performing the servile duties of the lord (see also manorial system).
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 in England, where by the 13th cent. the entire unfree peasant population came to be called villein. The localism of medieval economy has made a general definition of villein status exceedingly difficult. The villein was a person who was attached to the manor and who performed the servile work of the lord and in some respects was considered the property of the lord. Various distinctions of villeinage, or serfdom, were sometimes made. In privileged villeinage the services to be rendered to the lord were certain and determined; in pure villeinage the services were unspecified, and the villein was, in effect, subject to the whim of the lord. The villein was theoretically distinguished from the freeholder by the services and duties he owed to the lord; these included week-work (a specified number of days' work on the lord's demesne each week throughout the year) and boon days (work required at busy periods during the seasonal year, as at plowing or harvesting time), payment on the marriage of the villein's daughter, payment of tallage on demand, and the like. In practice, however, distinctions blurred, and all land tenure on the manor tended to approach a common level. The villein in England was protected by law against all except his lord, and some guarantee against the lord's power was gradually extended by the royal courts. In the 14th cent. English villeinage began to disappear. A contributing factor in its decline was the increasing substitution of money payments for manual services; rents replaced labor dues. The Black Death of 1349 (see plagueplague,
any contagious, malignant, epidemic disease, in particular the bubonic plague and the black plague (or Black Death), both forms of the same infection. These acute febrile diseases are caused by Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis
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), by greatly reducing the population and thus making labor scarce, made the demands of villeins more difficult to refuse and thus hastened the decline. The growth of towns also influenced the breakdown of the older class distinctions and the building up of new.

Bibliography

For bibliography, see manorial systemmanorial system
or seignorial system
, economic and social system of medieval Europe under which peasants' land tenure and production were regulated, and local justice and taxation were administered.
..... Click the link for more information.
; feudalismfeudalism
, form of political and social organization typical of Western Europe from the dissolution of Charlemagne's empire to the rise of the absolute monarchies. The term feudalism is derived from the Latin feodum,
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.

villein

, villain
(in medieval Europe) a peasant personally bound to his lord, to whom he paid dues and services, sometimes commuted to rents, in return for his land
References in periodicals archive ?
Firstly, some members in 1614 argued that the king's claims to be able to levy extra-parliamentary impositions effectively reduced free subjects to the status of villeins or bondsmen (Commons Journal, 1:472, 493), but no one seems to have drawn on Cicero, Livy, or Sallust on liberty (or on anything much).
The absolute powerless nature of the Jewish position may be summarized: "There was no custom, no tradition to which they could refer, as could the villeins or tenants, in the care of an autocratic master.
T]he jurisdictional aspect is most important, for the manorial court protects the villein tenant and his rights arise under its law.
84) Howell asserts that customary land was `family land' or `hereditary land': see her `Peasant Inheritance Customs in the Midlands', 113-14; also her Land, Family and Inheritance, 244; for the flight of villeins from the manor (ibid.
The writ directed the sheriff to deliver to the lord his villein who had run away from the manor.
Unlike the medieval villein, the slave's loss of freedom was total.
In short, become a kind of modern day medieval villein myself.
The term villein was introduced by the Normans and it referred to someone who held a virgate of land, between 25 and 30 acres, which was scattered between the open fields of a manor.
59) This argument forms the basis of Virginia's property laws on slavery, as Tucker demonstrates:</p> <pre> Thus an estate in lands, if limited for any number of years, even a thousand, is regarded as a chattel; whilst an estate in the precarious life of a villein [peasant tied to the land, similar to a serf] might be an inheritance in fee simple, and as such, considered as a real estate.
The honoree gets the last word in his Festschrift with "Claudius, the Villein King of Denmark," an essay first published, in Hamlet Studies, in 1989.
Nicholas Wodeward was a villein, possibly of above average wealth, although he does not appear in a 1283 subsidy assessment of taxable property.
He usually passed to the lord's heirs with the land, though, like the free villein, the serf could be ejected from the land at the lord's will without any recourse to the king's courts.