vineyard

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vineyard,

land on which cultivation of the grapegrape,
common name for the Vitaceae, a family of mostly climbing shrubs, widespread in tropical and subtropical regions and extending into the temperate zones. The woody vines, or lianas, climb by means of tendrils, which botanically are adaptations of terminal buds.
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—known as viticulture—takes place. As many as 40 varieties of grape, Vitis vinifera, are known. The few that grow wild are generally not used; all domesticated varieties require careful cultivation to produce good fruit. While the primary purpose of vineyards throughout history has been the production of grapes for winewine,
alcoholic beverage made by the fermentation of the juice of the grape. Wine is so ancient that its origin is unknown. The earliest archaeological evidence of winemaking dates to 8,000 years ago, and wine is mentioned in early Egyptian inscriptions and in the literature of
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, many vines, largely in the New World, are cultivated for eating grapes, grape juice, and dried grapes, or raisins.

Viticulture depends on such factors as sunlight, soil, moisture, wind, and pest and disease control. The best wines result from warm, dry conditions. Grape vines can be transplanted from established vineyards, or propagated from cuttings of new growth with two or three buds. Two thirds of the grape vines in the United States grow in California, mostly in the San Francisco Bay area, supplying the bulk of the grapes for the expansion of the American wine industry since 1950. Washington and New York rank next among the 13 grape-growing states.

Vineyard Pests and Diseases

Phylloxeraphylloxera
, small, sap-eating, greenish insect of the genus Phylloxera, closely related to the aphid. Phylloxeras feed on leaves and roots, and many species produce galls on deciduous trees.
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, a North American insect that kills the vine by feeding on the root, was not identified until the late 19th cent. It caused the failure of early plantings of European grapes in the E United States and, beginning about 1860, spread around the world, probably traveling on resistant American vines, infecting V. vinifera from France to Australia to California. French and American researchers finally saved the world's wine industry by grafting phylloxera-susceptible European vines onto resistant E American roots. Virtually all wine grapevines in Europe and California are grafted to rootstocks of E American origin. In 1979 phylloxera B overcame the resistance of the dominant rootstock in Northern California vineyards; thousands of acres subsequently were replanted with more resistant rootstocks.

Besides phylloxera, the V. vinifera of the Pacific slope is harassed by a variety of pests and diseases, including black measles, little-leaf, nematodes, red spiders, rabbits, and gophers. Among the afflictions of vineyards in the E United States are mildewmildew,
name for certain fungi and protists, for the diseases they cause in various crops, and for the discoloration (and sometimes the weakening and disintegration) they cause in such materials as leather, fabrics, and paper.
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, a devastating fungal disease; the grape-berry moth, which destroys fruit by causing it to color prematurely; the grapevine beetle, which eats the new buds in spring; climbing cutworms, which hide in the ground during the day and feed on the buds at night; black rot, which shrivels the fruit; and crown rot, which destroys the vines of some varieties.

Prophylaxis of healthy vines and treatment of afflicted ones are but two of the intensive, continuous aspects of viticulture. From the early stages of tending a vineyard, when appropriate vines must be selected and congenial soil chosen for them, through the operations of cutting, layering, grafting, planting, and fertilizing, up to the gathering of the crop, the grower must apply equal measures of skill, knowledge, and industry.

History

Vineyards are believed to have been introduced to Europe by the Phocaeans c.600 B.C. References by Homer and Vergil and in the Bible confirm that viticulture was widespread in the Mediterranean region in antiquity. Large areas of France, Italy, the Rhineland, Spain, and Portugal eventually proved hospitable to V. vinifera, which also flourished in Greece, North Africa, the Canary Islands, and the Azores. In A.D. 81 Emperor Domitian, fearing grain scarcity, restricted the spread of vineyards in Italy. The Romans also carried the vine to England, where its cultivation was attempted sporadically until the 19th cent. with scant success. Repeated attempts to transplant grapes to the New World began early in the 17th cent. but Tuscan vine growers in Virginia (working for Thomas Jefferson) and German immigrants from the Rhineland to Pennsylvania failed. Grape growing did not succeed in the early United States until the introduction of commercial varieties—the Catawba in 1830 and the Concord in 1849—of phylloxera-resistant species native to the E United States.

References in periodicals archive ?
Councillor Glen Reynolds said: "I want to ensure that what the vinery offers is special, not duplicating what Banff already has.
At the moment, the glass building is boarded up and unusable, but the near-PS250,000 contract should ensure the future of the vinery starts to take shape.
A gate beside the Vinery's rose garden leads into the walled garden which is another attraction - this time for artists who simply get permission to sit and paint.
Earlier this month, Aberdeenshire Council revealed it was looking for a "visionary organisation" to help with the process and fulfil the potential of the vinery.
The glass house scheme at Airlie Gardens has been named Grow Banff at the Vinery.
ALL TOO HARD, a half-brother to Black Caviar, will stand his first season at Vinery Stud for A$66,000 (PS44,438/[euro]51,960), writes Katherine Fidler.
To the side is an L-shaped conservatory, with French doors and an Edwardian-style vinery. There are four double bedrooms and a family bathroom on the first floor.
Within two weeks of talking to the sales team at Vinery Park in the village of Clovenfords, on the outskirts of the Borders town of Galashiels, the couple had reserved their new home.
The funds will be used to extend the Park Lodge to provide office space for staff, Northumbria Police and the probation service, extend the bowls pavilion to provide new public toilets, a cafe and a community room for educational activities and restore historic features including the bandstand, lake, Duffy Memorial Fountain, vinery wall and upper promenade at the Civic Hall.
WEEK on from opening, our vinery and other greenhouse and cold frames are full of seedlings and potted plants that will be planted out later in the month.
The search is on for a "visionary" organisation which can transform a run-down vinery into a community space.
Tenders are invited for sog-pqq-gw-fontaine vinery emptying point refurbishment