viol


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Related to viol: bass viol, Violetta

viol,

family of bowed stringed instruments, the most important ensemble instruments from the 15th to the 17th cent. The viol's early history is indefinite, but it is recognizable in depictions from as early as the 11th cent. During the second half of the 17th cent. it lost its dominant position to the violinviolin,
family of stringed musical instruments having wooden bodies whose backs and fronts are slightly convex, the fronts pierced by two f-hole-shaped resonance holes. The instruments of the violin family have been the dominant bowed instruments because of their versatility,
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 family and became practically extinct until the general revival of interest in early music and instruments in the 20th cent. The viol differs from the violin in the manner of playing, in its shape, and in having frets and typically six strings, tuned in fourths with one third, rather than in fifths. Most viols are properly played upright, resting on or between the knees, with the bow held with the palm upward. The viol usually has sloping shoulders, a flat back, and deeper ribs than the violin. It is a chamber instrument with a soft, sweet tone, incapable of the dynamic extremes and brilliance of the violin; this helps to account for its decline. The viol was built in four principal sizes—treble, alto, tenor, and bass—which were used in ensemble, or "consort." The double-bass viol, or violone, survived all the others, becoming, with some modification, the present double bassdouble bass,
bowed stringed musical instrument, the contrabass of the modern orchestral string section. It originated as a double-bass viol, an instrument described as early as 1566. A true double-bass violin appeared during the 18th cent.
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. The bass viol was the principal solo instrument of the family, possessing a large literature from the 16th to the 18th cent. It later became known as viola da gamba [Ital.,=leg viol]—originally the name of the whole family, to distinguish them from those of the viola da bracchio (arm viol) family, the forerunners of the violin. The viola d'amore, a member of the viol family, originated in the 17th cent. and was especially popular in the 18th cent. It has from five to seven strings, tuned in thirds and fourths, and an equal number of sympathetic strings running through the bridge and under the fingerboard. Unlike most viols, it is held, like the violin, under the chin. It was and is principally a solo instrument, possessing a modest literature from all periods, including the 20th cent.
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viol

any of a family of stringed musical instruments that preceded the violin family, consisting of a fretted fingerboard, a body rather like that of a violin but having a flat back and six strings, played with a curved bow. They are held between the knees when played and have a quiet yet penetrating tone; they were much played, esp in consorts, in the 16th and 17th centuries
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In the final section, "Practice," Dolata broadens his focus to encompass all aspects of tuning on the lute and viol, whether or not directly related to meantone temperament.
Ces evenements semblent avoir revetu un role certain dans le processus de conscientisation de l'organisation des phenomenes de viol en tant qu'ils ont touches MSF de maniere intime, l'obligeant a adresser des actes jusqu'alors largement occultes (Duroch, 2008).
Le viol ou la menace du viol sont egalement utilises pour exacerber la terreur lors des attaques et transmettre sciemment le VlH.
The 19-year-old, who has just been awarded a place at Trinity College of Music in London as a first study viol player, is leading the push to resurrect the popularity of the viol - a six-stringed instrument played between the knees which was more popular than the violin at the time of King Henry VIII.
Now, Hume's works are to be found on five recently released CDs of English viol music.
Eventually, wear and tear took its toll and the viol's "voice" was no longer of a quality acceptable to Liddle.
9 and 10, in which the two bass viols are given elaborate divisions.
Things |base and vile' might, indeed, have been no more than a passing comment on the equivocal status of the bass viol: it was, after all, the favourite instrument of Sir Andrew Aguecheek, and there are many references in contemporary plays which indicate that the instrument was sometimes held or played in a frankly suggestive way (much as the modern acoustic guitar is today).
Le prix Nobel de la paix 2018 a ete decerne au Dr Mukwege, gynecologue de la RD du Congo, et a Mme Murad, une survivante yazidi du viol et de la captivite par ISIS, pour leur contribution a la lutte contre les agressions sexuelles pendant la guerre.