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violin, family of stringed musical instruments having wooden bodies whose backs and fronts are slightly convex, the fronts pierced by two ƒ-shaped resonance holes. The instruments of the violin family have been the dominant bowed instruments because of their versatility, brilliance, and balance of tone, and their wide dynamic range. A variety of sounds may be produced, e.g., by different types of bowing or by plucking the string (see pizzicato). The violin has always been the most important member of the family, from the beginning being the principal orchestral instrument and holding an equivalent position in chamber music and as a solo instrument. The technique of the violin was developed much earlier than that of the viola or cello. The double bass is not a violin but a viol.
The smallest of this group of instruments is also called violin, and its four strings, tuned in fifths, run from the tailpiece at the base of the body over a bridge in the lower center, along the fingerboard, and into the pegbox. The violin is played by drawing a horsehair bow, held in the right hand, across the strings; the body is supported by the shoulder and held firm by the chin. The fingers of the left hand are used to stop the strings against the fingerboard, thus changing the pitch by shortening the vibrating length of the strings. Within certain limitations more than one note can be played at once, and the instrument is capable of producing harmonic effects and, with a mute clamped to the bridge, hushed, ethereal tones. It is the most agile of the family, and it has the greatest variety of tone color.
The instrument first appeared about 1510 as the viola da bracchio (arm viol) and soon spread through Europe. During the 16th cent. three sizes were known, a soprano (corresponding to the modern viola), a tenor (a fifth lower), and a bass (a tone lower than the present cello). The present-day violin appeared only near the end of the 16th cent. The earliest-known makers of the new instrument worked in Lombardy in the mid-16th cent. They were followed by Andrea Amati, founder of the Cremona school of violinmaking made famous by the Guarneri family and by Antonio Stradivari. In Stradivari's work the peak of violinmaking seems to have been reached barely a century after the emergence of the instrument itself.
Cello or Violoncello
(Italian, diminutive of violone, contrabass), a bowed musical instrument of the violin family, made in the bass-tenor register. The four strings are tuned in fifths (C two octaves below middle C, G a fifth above that, D below middle C, and A above middle C).
The cello is used as a solo, ensemble, and orchestral instrument. It originated around the turn of the 16th century as a result of the development of folk string instruments. The classic examples of the violoncello were created by the Italian masters of the 17th and 18th centuries, A. and N. Amati, G. Guarnieri, and A. Stradivari. The Russian master I. A. Batov and the Soviet masters E. F. Vitachek and T. F. Podgornyi also created highly successful violoncellos.
In the 17th and 18th centuries the violoncello replaced the viola da gamba in aristocratic circles, largely because of its rich expressive and technical possibilities and its fuller and brighter sound, similar in timbre to the human voice. Com-posers who wrote concertos, sonatas, and suites for the violoncello include J. S. Bach, J. Haydn, L. Boccherini, L. Beethoven, F. Mendelssohn, F. Chopin, E. Grieg, J. Brahms, R. Schumann, C. Saint-Saens, E. Lalo, and A. Dvorak. Composers for the cello include P. I. Tchaikovsky, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, A. K. Glazunov, S. V. Rachmaninoff, S. S. Prokofiev, D. D. Shostakovich, A. I. Khachaturian, D. B. Kabalevsky, and T. N. Khrennikov. Some of the greatest foreign cellists were L. Boccherini, J. L. Dupourt, B. Romberg, F. Servé, and P. Casals; great Russian cellists include K. lu. Davydov, A. V. Verzhbilovich, and A. A. Brandukov; great Soviet cellists include M. L. Rostropovich, S. N. Knushevitskii, and D. B. Shafran.
REFERENCESGinzburg, L. Istoriia violonchel’nogo iskusstva. Books 1-2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950-57.
Ginzburg, L. Istoriia violonchel’nogo iskusstva. Russkaia klassi-cheskaia violonchel’naia shkola. Moscow, 1965.
Wasielewski, W. J. Das Violoncello und seine Geschichte, 3rd ed. Leipzig, 1925.
Forino, L. Il violoncello, il violoncellist a ed i violoncellisti. 2nd ed. Milan, 1930.
L. S. GINZBURG