hemorrhagic fever

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Related to viral hemorrhagic fever: Lassa fever

hemorrhagic fever

(hĕm'ərăj`ĭk), any of a group of viral diseases characterized by sudden onset, muscle and joint pain, fever, bleeding, and shock from loss of blood. Bleeding occurs in the form of leakage from capillaries in the internal organs and the skin and mucous membranes. The causative viruses may be transmitted to humans by insects, ticks, or rodents, but in the case of the African hemorrhagic fevers caused by Ebola virus and Marburg virus the animal carrier is unknown. In addition to Ebola and Marburg, well-known hemorrhagic fevers include hantavirushantavirus,
any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA viruses that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus.
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, Lassa feverLassa fever
, an acute viral disease occurring mostly in W Africa, characterized by high fever, muscle aches, mouth ulcers, and bleeding in the skin in more severe cases. The disease was first recognized in Lassa, Nigeria, in 1969.
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, yellow feveryellow fever,
acute infectious disease endemic in tropical Africa and many areas of South and Central America. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water near human habitations.
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, and a severe form of dengue called dengue hemorrhagic fever (see dengue feverdengue fever
, acute infectious disease caused by four closely related viruses and transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes mosquito; it is also known as breakbone fever and bone-crusher disease.
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; see also Ebola virusEbola virus
, a virus of the genus Ebolavirus, which belongs to a family (Filoviridae) of RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. The viruses, named for a river in Congo (Kinshasa) near where the first species was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain
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).

Ebola and Marburg are closely related, newly emergent viruses that have in recent years caused epidemics in central Africa, with very high rates of mortality. Hantavirus occurs in many different parts of the world and is spread to humans from field rodents via microscopic bits of their excretions that get into the air and are inhaled. It was originally known as a disease of Asia and Europe that primarily attacked the kidneys, but a more deadly pulmonary form of hantavirus infection has more recently caused numerous fatalities in the United States, Chile, and other countries. Lassa fever, also spread to humans from rodent excretions, occurs primarily in W Africa. Closely related to the Lassa virus are the Junin and Machupo viruses, which have caused outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in South America. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, which is found primarily in Africa, SW and central Asia, and SE Europe, and Rift Valley feverRift Valley fever,
acute viral disease that affects domestic livestock and can be transmitted to humans. The disease is most common in E and S Africa, but also occurs widely in sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Arabian Peninsula.
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, which can result in hemorrhagic fever in humans and is found in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, are typically transmitted to humans from livestock by ticks or mosquitoes respectively or by contact with fluids or tissues from infected animals. Yellow fever, transmitted by the bite of a mosquito, still occurs in tropical areas despite largely successful control efforts. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, also spread by mosquitoes, has in recent years caused many fatalities among children in tropical countries.

There is usually no specific treatment to combat the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. One exception is the drug ribavirin, which has been effective in treating Lassa fever and has also been used to treat a form of hantavirus infection and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Treatment generally consists of such supportive measures as the replacement of lost blood, the maintainence of fluid balance, and the alleviation of symptoms. Survival depends largely upon the virulence of the virus strain and the quality of treatment. An experimental vaccine for Ebola was developed and used in a limited manner against the strain that caused the 2013–15 West African outbreak, but its long-term effectiveness is unclear.

Bibliography

See R. Reston, The Hot Zone (1994).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The incubation period for Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever is typically one week, during which time, the infected person will suffer from an array of symptoms such as fever, chills, back pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.
[2] Laboratory of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (National Reference Laboratory), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran; [3] Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad; [4] Department of Epidemiology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Capillary endothelium is directly or indirectly targeted in CCHF disease as with all viral hemorrhagic fevers. CCHF virus mainly activates mononuclear cells and leads to release of various cytokines and chemokines.
"Viral hemorrhagic fever associated with arenaviruses has never been documented in the United States except among overseas travelers and laboratory personnel exposed accidentally while doing research," said California State Health Director Diana M.
Other viral hemorrhagic fevers are found in Kingdom, no case of Ebola virus had been found so far.
The clinical manifestation of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever resembles that of other viral hemorrhagic fevers: initial malaise and influenza-like symptoms, followed by encephalitis, icterus, and ecchymosis.
"The outbreak of suspected viral hemorrhagic fever in South Sudan could rapidly evolve, and critical information including laboratory confirmation of the etiology of disease is needed to direct response efforts," it added.
History witnesses that the Congo virus caused severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in different cities of Pakistan.
The assay has been developed by Corgenix and other members of the Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Consortium (VHFC), a partnership of research institutes.
According to MOH National Campaign for the prevention of AlKhumra Hemorrhagic Fever, the virus (genus Flavivirus, AHFV) was recently identified as the agent of a viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia and characterized serologically and genetically as a variant genotype of Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV).
On September 23, 2014, a healthcare worker was admitted to Mengo Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, with a febrile illness suspected to be viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) infection.
Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.

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