It can be divided into two parts: facial or viscerocranium
, which comprises a pair of mandibles and bones that circumscribe the initial part of the digestive and respiratory systems, and neurocranium which houses the encephalic organs from central nervous system.
With regards to the viscerocranium
components which shares in formation of different structures of the sound transmitting apparatus; the ventral component of the mandibular arch (Meckel's cartilage primordium; M.C.PR) and the dorsal component of the mandibular arch (pterygoquadrate; P.Q) appears as mesenchmatous structures (Figure 2).
The orofacial complex comprises the oral cavity organs and the facial skeleton (viscerocranium
) with the motor coordination areas of the central nervous system (CNS).
INTRODUCTION: The skull is composed of the neurocranium which surrounds the brain, eyes and inner plus middle ears, and the viscerocranium
which is derived from the frontonasal and first arch mesenchyme and forms the facial skeleton.
Frontal sinuses are part of the paranasal sinuses, or rather, pneumatic chambers located in some bones of the viscerocranium
that develop as extensions of the nasal cavity's respiratory section (GRAFF; MARSHALL, 2003).
It separates the neurocranium from the cervical spine, deep neck spaces and facial viscerocranium
Elements of the viscerocranium
were described following Hunt Von Herbing et al.
The measurements were organized into three regions of the head: the anterior skull, or the viscerocranium
, including the teeth; the midskull, near the orbits; and the posterior skull.
Assessment and morphological analysis on the bones that make up the neurocranium and viscerocranium
of the human skeleton are very important in forensic anthropology and play a significant role in investigations to estimate and determine the sex, age, ethnicity and height of unknown individuals (Kumar & Nagar, 2014).
Craniofacial complex is composed of neurocranium, viscerocranium
, and cranial base (Lewis et al.,1985; Enlow et al., 2007; van Limborgh et al., 2012).