rayon

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rayon,

synthetic fibers made from cellulosecellulose,
chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohydrate that is a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Raw cotton is composed of 91% pure cellulose; other important natural sources are flax, hemp, jute, straw, and wood.
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 or textiles woven from such fibers; more rayon is manufactured than any other synthetic fiber. The name was adopted (1924), in preference to "artificial silk," by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce and various commercial associations. As early as 1665 the English naturalist Robert Hooke had suggested the possibility of making artificial silk, but the first artificial textile fiber was produced in 1884 by a French scientist, Hilaire de Chardonnet, and was manufactured by him in 1889. Unpopular at first because it was too lustrous and laundered poorly, it has been steadily improved. Cellulose, originally from cotton linters but now chiefly from wood pulp, washed, bleached, and pressed into sheets, is dissolved by chemicals, then forced under pressure through minute holes in a metal cap (spinneret), emerging as filaments that unite to form one continuous strand solidified by passage through a suitable liquid or warm air. The spinning solution may be forced through a larger orifice or slit to produce a monofilament, a ribbon, or a sheet. Filaments are doubled and twisted into smooth, silklike yarns or cut into staple lengths and spun. Spun rayon can be treated to simulate wool, linen, or cotton. There are four methods of manufacturing rayon, using different materials and processes. In the nitrocellulose process developed by Chardonnet, no longer of commercial importance, cellulose is treated with nitric and sulfuric acids. In the viscose processviscose process
, method widely used for the commercial preparation of rayon. Cellulose, prepared from either wood pulp or, less commonly, cotton linters, is treated with sodium hydroxide (an alkali) and then with carbon disulfide, the resulting product being a substance called
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 discovered in 1892, it is treated with carbon disulfide, then dissolved in caustic soda, forced through a spinneret, and hardened in sulfuric acid. Viscose rayon is the most important type commercially, being used in most kinds of wearing apparel, furniture fabric, and carpets. For cuprammonium rayon, the cellulose is dissolved in copper oxide and ammonia, forced through holes larger than the intended diameter, then, by a process known as stretch spinning, is elongated and twisted under tension to yield a very fine, strong yarn used for sheer fabrics and hosiery. Rayon produced by these three methods is classified as regenerated, since the final product, like the original material, is cellulose. The fourth type, saponified acetate rayon, originated in England in 1918, is an acetate derivative of cellulose made by steeping cellulose in acetic acid, then treating it with acetic anhydride. Acetate rayon is more resistant to stains and creasing, is plasticized by heat, and requires special dyes, thus allowing two-tone effects with a single dye when acetate is combined with other fibers. An acetate filler is used to make shatterproof glass.

rayon

[′rā‚än]
(textiles)
A fiber made from regenerated cellulose by the viscose or cuprammonium process.

rayon

Continuous-filament yarn composed of regenerated cellulose; similar in chemical structure to natural cellulose fiber but contains shorter polymer units; usually made by the viscose process.

rayon

1. any of a number of textile fibres made from wood pulp or other forms of cellulose
2. any fabric made from such a fibre
References in periodicals archive ?
861 Murata vortex spinning frame using cotton, viscose rayon, lyocell, and polyester fibers, respectively.
[CS.sub.2] is widely used in the industry for the production of viscose rayon, rubber, carbon tetrachloride, or other organic materials, and also as a solvent.
Cotton, for example, which has a lower moisture content than viscose rayon and lyocell, released more spores over time.
35 Alice Hamilton, Occupational Poisoning in the Viscose Rayon Industry, Bulletin 34 (U.S.
The three products are viscose rayon staple fibers, certain cuprammonium rayon filament yarns and cashmere yarn.
LENZING AG TO INVEST US$150 MILLION IN VISCOSE RAYON PROJECT.
Handtufted, handhooked, machine-woven and tufted qualities are offered in a 5-by-8 at $199 to $499 in wool, polyester, viscose rayon, modacrylic, jute and blends.
It pioneered the world's manmade fibre industry in 1904 with the development of viscose rayon, and its name became linked with acetate yarns in the 1920s and Courtelle acrylic fibre in the 1950s before it diversified in to coatings a decade later.
Favourable: Viscose rayon is a medium-weight fibre with fair to good durability.
Application: Reactive digital inks for cotton, silk, viscose rayon, linen and lyocell.
imports including some viscose rayon staple fibers continues to languish on Capitol Hill, with no clear timeline for final passage.
Rayon yarn from viscose rayon fibers is sued for embroidered garments and for layer.