folic acid

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Related to Vitamin B9: vitamin C, vitamin B12

folic acid:

see coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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; vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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.

Folic Acid

 

(vitamin Bc, pteroylglutamic acid), a vitamin of the B group. One folic-acid molecule is composed of a pteridine nucleus and para-aminobenzoic and glutamic-acid residues. The pale yellow hygroscopic crystals, which decompose at 250°C, are poorly soluble in water (0.001 percent). Folic acid is widely distributed in nature and is present in all animal, plant, and bacterial cells. It is synthesized by most microorganisms and lower and higher plants. It is not formed in the tissues of man, mammals, and birds and therefore should be obtained through food; however, it may be synthesized by microflora in the intestines.

Folic acid stimulates hematogenic functions in the organism. In animal and plant tissues it takes part—in reduced form, that is, in the form of tetrahydrofolic acid and its derivatives—in the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases, certain amino acids (se-rine, methionine, histidine), choline, and other compounds. The adult daily folic-acid requirement is 0.2–0.4 mg. The primary sources of the vitamin are leafy vegetables, liver, and yeast; strawberries are also a rich source.

Folic acid is effective in the treatment of certain forms of anemia and other diseases. It is prepared by the condensation of 2, 4, 5-triamino-6-hydroxy pirimidine, 1,1, 3-trichloroacetone, and para-aminobenzoyl glutamic acid. Aminopterin and methotrexate, which have a structure similar to that of folic acid, are used in the treatment of certain types of malignant tumors. These compounds are antimetabolites of folic acid and have a suppressive effect on cell growth and development.

REFERENCES

Andreeva, N. A. Vitaminy gruppy folievoi kisloty. Moscow, 1963.
Berezovskii, V. M. Khimiia vitaminov, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1973.
Vitaminy. Edited by M. I. Smirnov. Moscow, 1974.
Blakley, R. L. The Biochemistry of Folic Acid and Related Pteridines. Amsterdam-London, 1969

E. M. BIRINBERG

folic acid

[′fō·lik ′as·əd]
(biochemistry)
C19H19N7O6 A yellow, crystalline vitamin of the B complex; it is slightly soluble in water, usually occurs in conjugates containing glutamic acid residues, and is found especially in plant leaves and vertebrate livers. Also known as pteroylglutamic acid (PGA).
References in periodicals archive ?
Campaigners want the government to force Swiss bakers to add vitamin B9 by way of adding cold-pressed wheatgerm to flour.
Indeed antifolates targeting vitamin B9 biosynthesis of the malarial parasites have been proven valuable chemotherapeutics for the treatment of malaria, one of the most devastating infectious diseases leading to nearly 250 million cases worldwide and about 1 million deaths annually.
Folic acid - also known as vitamin B9 - can significantly reduce the risk of neural tube defects, such as spina bifida.
2,3) Folate, once known as vitamin B9, exists in foods, while crystalline folic acid does not.
Folate, once known as vitamin B9, is named after the dark green leafy vegetables that it was first extracted from.
Vitamin B9 - or folate - can be found in fruits and green leafy vegetables; vitamin B6 is common in fish, meat, potatoes and whole grains; and methionine is present in various seeds, nuts, cereals, fish and meats.
A study found that higher levels of folate, also known as folic acid or vitamin B9, were associated with higher birth weights.
The researchers postulate that folic acid, the synthetic form of folate or vitamin B9, and the other B vitamins in prenatal supplements, likely protect against deficits in early fetal brain development.
Would-be mums are already advised to take folic acid - also known as vitamin B9 - as soon as they stop using contraception.
Dr Caroline Relton, of Newcastle University's School of Clinical Medical Sciences, last year called for folic acid ( vitamin B9 ( to be added to bread and cereals to make sure mothers-to-be get enough of the vital vitamin in early pregnancy.