In conclusion, the type of evolved hydrocarbons and their quantity changes with heating rate, which is a measure of the heat flux to the material, indicating either the change of the reaction mechanism or occurrence of complex and/or secondary reactions due to higher heat input to oil shale or presence of a catalyzing material, enhance chemical reactions or increase in system voidage
The bed porosity or voidage
(void fraction) is calculated by measuring the bulk density of chips and is defined as
Unlike other studies, here is included the voidage
time derivative among the independent constitutive variables.
It is to be noted that, in the above models, the global operating conditions are used to deduce the correlation between drag coefficient and voidage
(or bed height), which neglect the effect of local information on the drag coefficient.
Properties such as size, thickness, superficial texture, and shape, which are usually not uniform for biological particulates, are key factors in defining packed-bed properties such as permeability, local voidage
and bulk density.
eav" is the average cross- sectional voidage
estimated fromb the measured pressure drop along CFB column .
The apparent volume of the paint sample comprehends the solid volume and the intra-particle voidage
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A global voidage
replacement ratio of greater than 1.
Zhu, "The Axial Distribution of the Cross-Sectionally Averaged Voidage
in Fast Fluidized Beds," Powder Technol.
fraction is reduced and hence the improved recovery ability.
No Air Voidage
Factor - More Efficient/Faster Plating or less Amps