When the voltage gradient
is high enough, there is arcing in air.
As a charged macromolecule travels down the voltage gradient
through the pore, a transient current shift is measured across the pore.
If the crimp is produced in the region of uniform axial current flow, there is no radial voltage gradient
, no inter-strand fritting and crimp resistance does not fall.
Sample pastes were then cooked either in a 90 C water bath for 30 minutes or cooked ohmically at a voltage gradient
of 12.62 volts per cm.
We quantified the lowest immobilization threshold as measures of power density ([micro]W/[cm.sup.3]) and voltage gradient
To limit the voltage gradient
and reduce the Total-Harmonic-Distortion (THD) factor, the output filters are large, bulky and expensive.
Four indirect inspection techniques were used during the test program, including Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM), Alternating Current Voltage Gradient
(ACVG), Direct Current Voltage Gradient
(DCVG), and Close Interval Survey (CIS).
With direct current voltage gradient
(DCVG) equipment can be make an inspection concerning the integrity of cathode protection grounded.
Step voltages--there is a dangerous voltage gradient
between the feet of a person standing on earth The earthing grid can be used to dissipate fault currents to remote earth and reduce the voltage gradients
in the earth.
A carefully designed experiment using BBD was used to study the interaction effects of voltage gradient
, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the trivalent Cr remedial efficiency in saline-sodic soil that was artificially spiked with Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, phenol, and kerosene using RSM modeling and optimization tools.
It is reported that the electrical stress caused by the voltage gradient
in the material, the thermal stress caused by a combination of losses generated in the motor and the ambient, as well as the environmental stress caused by oxidation will lead to degradation of polymeric insulation (10).
Figure 1 illustrates the thermal gradient and generated voltage gradient
on this model geometry at 20.0 s near 300 K.