In other words, deswelling or volume phase
Two papers from Italy described astronomic HOEs and volume phase
holographic gratings (VPHGs) recorded on photopolymer materials.
The NIPAM component in the poly(NIPAM-VAA-AAm) microgels network undergoes a volume phase
transition from swollen to shrunken (collapsed) state with increasing temperature.
T/(K) log D [DELTA]G/(kJ x [DELTA]S/(J x [mol.sup.-1]) [mol.sup.-1] x [K.sup.-1]) 283 1.44 -7.80 -65.12 293 1.25 -7.01 -65.60 303 1.05 -6.09 -66.47 313 0.92 -5.51 -66.20 323 0.86 -5.31 -64.77 TABLE 5: Effect of the volume phase
ratio on Te(IV) extraction.
The core differentiator is the use of P&P Optica's high-efficiency, transmission-based Volume Phase
Holographic (VPH) gratings, which provide average absolute diffraction efficiency greater than 75%, far more than the typical 35% of ruled and holographic gratings, and a signal-to-noise ratio of 100,000:1.
The series employs a Volume Phase
Grating (VPG) as the spectral dispersion element and an InGaAs array detector as the detection element.
These calculations were made measuring the final salt concentration by conductimetry and the final external volume phase
(W2), and performing a mass balance of the salt.
In addition, the Bayfol HX material was also used for astronomical Volume Phase
Holographic Gratings (VPHGs).
The amount of surfactant affected on CPE by the following aspects: (1)Extraction rate; (2) Enrichment volume phase
; (3) The process of phase separation.
The spectrometer integrates multiple volume phase
gratings customized for each specific wavelength region and deep-cooled InGaAs array detectors, providing maximized light throughput.