If the crazes took place, as expected considering the

volume strain measurements and the fact that the damage was recovered after the thermal treatment on the deformed specimen, they may have closed after unloading.

where [[epsilon].sub.v] is the

volume strain; [[epsilon].sub.1], [[epsilon].sub.3] are the axial strain and lateral strain, respectively; [[sigma].sub.1] is the axial stress; [[sigma].sub.3] are the confining stress; E is the elastic modulus; v is Poisson's ratio.

The conventional multifield coupling method is mainly based on the Biot consolidation equation [9], that is, the coupling of stress and seepage through effective stress principle and

volume strain source term:

In elastic mechanics using Poisson's ratio and axial strain to calculate

volume strain is the most common method for brittle rock.

Keywords: Coupling mechanism; Tele-seismic waves

Volume strain Water level 2011 Mw 9.1 Tohoku earthquake

Nevertheless, since these different mechanisms are accompanied by different changes in

volume strain, indications on the deformation mechanisms occurring in polymeric materials was derived from the analysis of the volumetric strain during tensile tests as previously reported in the literature [8, 26, 29-31].

where [DELTA][[epsilon].sub.P] is the equivalent plasticity, [DELTA][[mu].sub.P] is the equivalent

volume strain increment, [mathematical expression not reproducible] is the plastic strain at normal pressure P, [[epsilon].sup.f.sub.P] is the equivalent plastic strain, [[mu].sup.f.sub.P] is the equivalent

volume strain, [T.sup.*] = T/[f'.sub.c] is the maximum tensile strength of the material, T is the tensile strength of the material, and [D.sub.1] and [D.sub.2] are damage constants.

Based on the elastic half-space dislocation model (Okada, 1992; Lin and Stein, 2004; Toda et al., 2005), we calculated the coseismic static-strain change in the Fuxin well, the result of which is shown in Figure 8 and Table 1; it can be seen that the static

volume strain changes slightly during the earthquake (much smaller than that of the coseismic

volume strain), i.e., the coseismic volume-strain variation is largely induced by the dynamic stresses.

However, the

volume strain increased with the increase in shearing strain in the later stage of shearing, up to a shearing strain of 10%.

According to the conventional triaxial test results, as shown in Figures 10(a) and 10(b), the main stress difference ([sigma].sub.1] - [sigma].sub.3]) increased with the axial strain [epsilon].sub.1] before finally stabilising, but the

volume strain continued to increase.

This also reduces the sensitivity towards crazing, as the

volume strain is released.

where [G.sub.r] and [K.sub.r] are the shear modulus and bulk modulus of the rubber, [DELTA][V.sub.R] is the

volume strain in the rubber particles, G is the surface energy of the rubber phase, and the function F([lambda.sub.f])is dependent on the failure strain of the rubber under biaxial stretching conditions.