Many studies have quantified the site, proportion and outline of vomer
bone available for grafting in clefts.
These characters were: position of the club of the maxillopalatine, medial curvature of the rostral palatine, length of the interpalatine space, position of the palatal crests, shape of the rostral end of the vomer
in ventral view, nature of the pterygoid-palatine joint, and size or presence of an interorbital fontanel.
The experiment was ended 40 d after each treatment was initiated and morphotype was assessed as before by visual examination of vomer
The facial bones were maxilla, incisive (premaxilla), palatine, pterygoid, nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic (malar), turbinates, vomer
, mandible and hyoid as also reported by Raghavan (1964) in ox, Miller et al.
nasutus agree with those described in the pertinent literature (Nakamura et al., 1983; Nakamura and Parin, 1993): body fairly elongate and strongly compressed; lower jaw beyond tip of upper jaw; vomer
edentate; gill rakers degenerated; a single fairly straight lateral line, from above upper angle of opercula, gradually sloping posteriorly and running straight from mid first dorsal fin to caudal fin base.
Vomerine teeth absent, anterior border of vomer
Mucosa was removed from the area of the vomer
accessed from the nasopharyngeal side.
Na regiao do osso paraesfenoide (os parasphenoidale) destaca-se o rostro paraesfenoide (rostrum parasphenoidale, RP: Figura 1D) que alcanca 40% da distancia do condilo occipital e o pes pterigoide, articulandose rostralmente com o palatino; funde-se dorsalmente ao septo interorbital e rostralmente contata-se, ainda, com o vomer
(facies articularis vomeralis).
Common apomorphic features mentioned by Bradler (2009) are the strongly shortened subgenital plate of females, which merely covers the bases of the gonapophyses, reduced vomer
, lack of paired ventral thorn pads on the posterior margin of the anal segment and enlarged cerci of males, which are incurving and have an interobasal protuberance.