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Related to vomiting: food poisoning, Vomiting blood


ejection of food and other matter from the stomach through the mouth, often preceded by nauseanausea,
sensation of discomfort, or queasiness, in the stomach. It may be caused by irritation of the stomach by food or drugs, unpleasant odors, overeating, fright, or psychological stress. It is usually relieved by vomiting.
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. The process is initiated by stimulation of the vomiting center of the brain by nerve impulses from the gastrointestinal tract or other part of the body. The vomiting center then sends out nerve impulses that precipitate spasmodic muscular contractions of the stomach wall and downward spasms of the diaphragm. The pressure generated then forces up the contents of the stomach. The vomiting mechanism may be in response to local irritation (diseases or disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, overburdening of the capacity and digestive capabilities of the stomach, ingestion of harmful foods or substances) or result from a metabolic disturbance (as in pregnancy) or from disorders or stimulation of the nervous system (e.g., migraine, motion sickness, infectious disease, brain tumor or injury, disagreeable odors). Vomiting may also be a reflex action to other spasmodic conditions (whooping cough, gagging).



a complex reflex action, during which the stomach contents are involuntarily expulsed through the mouth as a result of the excitation of the vomiting center, located in the medulla oblongata.

During vomiting, the pylorus undergoes a spasm and the cardia of the stomach opens. As a result of antiperistaltic contractions, food travels from the stomach to the esophagus and is expulsed to the outside by the spasmodic and jerky contraction of the respiratory musculature and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. At the same time, the larynx rises and the epiglottis falls, which causes the glottis to close, thus preventing the vomit from entering the respiratory tract. The vomit is hindered from entering the nasal cavity by the raised soft palate.

Vomiting may be provoked by irritants acting on gastric mucosa, by the direct effect of toxins on the vomiting center, and by the stimulation of receptors, for example, in diseases of the abdominal organs, the brain, and meninges. Psychogenic and conditioned-reflex vomiting is also possible.

Vomiting is generally a defensive act because it helps remove harmful substances from the stomach. However, frequent vomiting, for example, the indomitable vomiting that occurs during pyloristenosis, may result in dehydration and disturbances of mineral metabolism and acid-base equilibrium.

Vomiting is dangerous during alcoholic intoxication and coma and when a patient is recovering from general anesthesia; atony of the epiglottis and soft palate may permit vomit to enter the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract, which can cause asphyxia.

Vomiting is a specific symptom of many pathological conditions in such animals as carnivores, omnivores, and ruminants.


References in periodicals archive ?
Patients were observed intraoperatively, in the recovery room and the ward up to 24 hours for episodes of nausea and vomiting or retching which were evaluated on 3-point PONV score (0-no nausea & vomiting, 1-episode of nausea, 2-retching and vomiting) for next 24 hrs.
Table 3: Incident Cases of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Italy (2013-2023)
Increase rest to reduce physiological and psychological stress as this may precipitate nausea and vomiting episodes.
Anything that stays in the stomach for too long causes irritation and can lead to vomiting, especially when the stomach is otherwise empty.
After a few cycles of chemotherapy the conditioned response stimuli like sights, sounds and even thoughts of the hospital can be learned and they then can generate the conditioned response of nausea and vomiting.
While one study has categorized the severity of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy along a continuum, the most clinically relevant factor is how the patient is affected by her symptoms.
Patients were excluded from the study for various reasons including: procedure refusal, receiving antiemetics, steroids, or psychoactive medications within 24 hours of study initiation, vomiting or retching in the 24 hours prior to surgery, having cancer chemotherapy within the last four weeks, ongoing vomiting from gastrointestinal diseases, allergy to NSAIDs, and if they had bronchial asthma.
Dexamethasone 8mg, was more efficacious in reducing post-operative nausea and vomiting at 0-6 hours when administered 30 minutes before the completion of surgery.
Akynzeo comprises a new anti-nausea drug, palonosetron, and netupitant, which was approved to treat vomiting and nausea in 2008.
A SCHOOL in Gwynedd has been hit by an outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting.