vomiting

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Related to vomitus: emesis, emetic

vomiting,

ejection of food and other matter from the stomach through the mouth, often preceded by nauseanausea,
sensation of discomfort, or queasiness, in the stomach. It may be caused by irritation of the stomach by food or drugs, unpleasant odors, overeating, fright, or psychological stress. It is usually relieved by vomiting.
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. The process is initiated by stimulation of the vomiting center of the brain by nerve impulses from the gastrointestinal tract or other part of the body. The vomiting center then sends out nerve impulses that precipitate spasmodic muscular contractions of the stomach wall and downward spasms of the diaphragm. The pressure generated then forces up the contents of the stomach. The vomiting mechanism may be in response to local irritation (diseases or disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, overburdening of the capacity and digestive capabilities of the stomach, ingestion of harmful foods or substances) or result from a metabolic disturbance (as in pregnancy) or from disorders or stimulation of the nervous system (e.g., migraine, motion sickness, infectious disease, brain tumor or injury, disagreeable odors). Vomiting may also be a reflex action to other spasmodic conditions (whooping cough, gagging).

Vomiting

 

a complex reflex action, during which the stomach contents are involuntarily expulsed through the mouth as a result of the excitation of the vomiting center, located in the medulla oblongata.

During vomiting, the pylorus undergoes a spasm and the cardia of the stomach opens. As a result of antiperistaltic contractions, food travels from the stomach to the esophagus and is expulsed to the outside by the spasmodic and jerky contraction of the respiratory musculature and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. At the same time, the larynx rises and the epiglottis falls, which causes the glottis to close, thus preventing the vomit from entering the respiratory tract. The vomit is hindered from entering the nasal cavity by the raised soft palate.

Vomiting may be provoked by irritants acting on gastric mucosa, by the direct effect of toxins on the vomiting center, and by the stimulation of receptors, for example, in diseases of the abdominal organs, the brain, and meninges. Psychogenic and conditioned-reflex vomiting is also possible.

Vomiting is generally a defensive act because it helps remove harmful substances from the stomach. However, frequent vomiting, for example, the indomitable vomiting that occurs during pyloristenosis, may result in dehydration and disturbances of mineral metabolism and acid-base equilibrium.

Vomiting is dangerous during alcoholic intoxication and coma and when a patient is recovering from general anesthesia; atony of the epiglottis and soft palate may permit vomit to enter the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract, which can cause asphyxia.

Vomiting is a specific symptom of many pathological conditions in such animals as carnivores, omnivores, and ruminants.

V. A. FROLOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Other situations with high risk for nosocomial transmission include profuse excretion of body fluids, such as vomitus, watery stool, or blood with high amounts of virus shedding, or invasive care in an intensive care unit.
Nausea and vomiting were evaluated every three minutes with the following scale: 0 = no nausea and no vomitus; 1 = mild nausea and no vomiting; 2 = moderate nausea and no vomiting; 3 = severe nausea and vomiting.
First, the role of copeptin as a stress marker [28-30] can nicely be illustrated with our results: the levels of the two participants with vomitus were extraordinarily elevated despite persisting hypotonic hyponatremia.
Vomitus differs from the other body fluids discussed here because it is not produced under everyday circumstances.
Five family contacts reported being present while the index patient's stool, urine, or vomitus was being cleaned.
8) Severe vomiting, especially if the vomitus contains blood or looks as if it contains coffee grounds--a sign of digested blood
"Not all owners notice the distended abdomen--it can become as taut as drum--but the multiple attempts to vomit or gag without production of any vomitus should make owners very suspicious of GDV."
The vomitus contained clear fluid initially, which later became brownish in colour.
Using lifelike stomach pressure, the team ejected faux vomit from the device's stomach into a plastic "vomitus containment chamber." Another device tested air from the chamber for airborne viruses.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done where gastrointestinal bleed was suspected on vomitus or stools.
Major and serious consequence of vomiting is loss of both fluid and important electrolytes with the vomitus causing serious metabolic dera-ngements.